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Appropriate calcium fortification of the food supply presents a challenge.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184684
Source
J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7):2232-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2003
Author
Louise Johnson-Down
Mary R L'Abbé
Nora S Lee
Katherine Gray-Donald
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7):2232-8
Date
Jul-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Calcium - administration & dosage
Canada
Food Supply
Food, Fortified
Humans
Middle Aged
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Abstract
Fortification with calcium to increase dietary intakes of this mineral is currently under evaluation in Canada. To model the potential dietary consequences of food fortification, data from a large national survey of Canadians (n = 1543) were used. Food fortification scenarios were based on reference amounts for labeling requirements. Consumption of milk, cheese and other dairy products was associated with high calcium intakes, and there was a low prevalence of inadequacy in men
PubMed ID
12840185 View in PubMed
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Dietary guidelines and patterns of intake in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61784
Source
Br J Nutr. 1999 Apr;81 Suppl 2:S43-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1999
Author
J. Haraldsdóttir
Author Affiliation
Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark. jha@kvl.dk
Source
Br J Nutr. 1999 Apr;81 Suppl 2:S43-8
Date
Apr-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Denmark
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Female
Food Habits
Fruit
Humans
Male
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Vegetables
Abstract
Food-based dietary guidelines in Denmark have usually been expressed in simple terms only and need to be elaborated. Quantitative recommendations on fruit and vegetable intake were issued in 1998, recommending 600 g/d (potatoes not included). This paper is based on a national dietary survey in 1995 (n = 3098, age range 1-80 years) supplemented with data from a simple frequency survey in 1995 (n = 1007, age range 15-80 years) and from the first national survey in 1985 (n = 2242, age range 15-80 years). Only data on adults are included in this paper. Fat intake, saturated fat in particular, is too high (median intake 37 %energy and 16 %energy, respectively). Main fat sources are separated fats (butter, margarine, oil, etc.: 40%), meat (18%), and dairy products (21%). Total fat intake decreased from 1985 to 1995 but fatty acid composition did not improve. Dietary fibre intake is from 18 to 22 g/d (women and men, respectively) with 62% from cereals, 24% from vegetables and 12% from fruit. Mean intake of vegetables and potatoes was from 200 to 250 g/d (women and men, respectively). Mean intake of fruit and vegetables (potatoes not included) was 277 g/d, or less than half of the new recommendation (600 g/d). Only 15% of participants in the frequency survey reported consuming both fruit and vegetables every day, and only 28% reported to do so almost every day. In conclusion, dietary intake in Denmark is characterized by a high intake of saturated fat and total fat, and by a relatively low intake of fruit and vegetables.
PubMed ID
10999025 View in PubMed
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The impact of a population-level school food and nutrition policy on dietary intake and body weights of Canadian children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108403
Source
Prev Med. 2013 Dec;57(6):934-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Christina Fung
Jessie-Lee D McIsaac
Stefan Kuhle
Sara F L Kirk
Paul J Veugelers
Author Affiliation
University of Alberta, School of Public Health, 3-50 University Terrace, 8303-112 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2T4, Canada. Electronic address: Christina.Fung@ualberta.ca.
Source
Prev Med. 2013 Dec;57(6):934-40
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Weight
Child
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Eating
Female
Humans
Male
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
School Health Services
Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess population-level trends in children's dietary intake and weight status before and after the implementation of a provincial school nutrition policy in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Self-reported dietary behavior and nutrient intake and measured body mass index were collected as part of a population-level study with grade 5 students in 2003 (n=5215) and 2011 (5508), prior to and following implementation of the policy. We applied random effects regression methods to assess the effect of the policy on dietary and health outcomes.
In 2011, students reported consuming more milk products, while there was no difference in mean consumption of vegetables and fruits in adjusted models. Adjusted regression analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Despite significant temporal decreases in dietary energy intake and increases in diet quality, prevalence rates of overweight and obesity continued to increase.
This population-level intervention research suggests a positive influence of school nutrition policies on diet quality, energy intake and healthy beverage consumption, and that more action beyond schools is needed to curb the increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23891787 View in PubMed
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Interpreting and using the dietary references intakes in dietary assessment of individuals and groups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189757
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Jun;102(6):780-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
Susan I Barr
Suzanne P Murphy
Mary I Poos
Author Affiliation
University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Jun;102(6):780-8
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Binomial Distribution
Canada
Diet - standards
Humans
Nutrition Assessment
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements
Reference Standards
Risk Assessment - methods - standards
United States
Abstract
For individuals, a statistical approach is available to compare observed intakes to the EAR or AI (to assess adequacy), and the UL (to assess risk of excess). A more qualitative assessment of intakes involves comparison directly to the RDA to evaluate adequacy, but this is accurate only if long-term usual intake is known. For groups of people, the prevalence of inadequacy can usually be estimated as the proportion with intakes below the EAR, while the prevalence of potentially excessive intakes is estimated as the proportion above the UL. The accuracy of all assessments depends on unbiased and accurate intake estimates as well as a consideration of the effects of day-to-day variation in intake. Nutrition practitioners will find the new DRIs useful for assessing diets in a variety of settings. Computerized assessment systems will be important tools when incorporating these theoretical concepts into dietetic practice.
PubMed ID
12067043 View in PubMed
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[Practical aspects of vitamin deficit correction in nutrition of children and adult population by enrichment of foodstuffs].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179433
Source
Ukr Biokhim Zh. 2004 Jul-Aug;76(4):100-16
Publication Type
Article
Author
L N Shatniuk
Source
Ukr Biokhim Zh. 2004 Jul-Aug;76(4):100-16
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Avitaminosis - prevention & control
Child
Diet
Food, Fortified - standards
Humans
Micronutrients - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements
Russia
Young Adult
Abstract
One of the effective ways of normalization of micronutrients deficiency (vitamins, mineral substances etc.) for children and adult population--use of the specialized foodstuffs enriched with essential food substances in a daily diet is considered in the paper. On the basis of the analysis of foreign experience and the data accumulated as a result of performance of some state scientific and technical programs and the major projects of the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technologies of the Russian Federation, the basic scientific principles of enrichment of foodstuffs with vitamins and mineral substances are considered. In view of these principles the wide range of products of preventive purpose is developed: bakery, confectionery products, grain concentrates, dry mixes for preparation of the beverages, enriched with vitamins and some mineral substances (iron, calcium, magnesium). Large-scale clinical approbation of the developed products on various groups of the population (children of preschool and school age, pregnant women, workers of hard trades, patients with hypertonic disease, diabetes), has shown their efficiency both in the improvement of the vitamin status of surveyed and some therapeutic parameters. Circulars, instruction on application, methodical recommendations are developed and authorized.
PubMed ID
19621763 View in PubMed
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The choice of a diet quality indicator to evaluate the nutritional health of populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197316
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2000 Sep;3(3):357-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2000
Author
L. Dubois
M. Girard
N. Bergeron
Author Affiliation
Département de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Pavillon de l'Est, Université Laval, Sainte-Foy, Québec, Canada. lise.dubois@msp.ulaval.ca
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2000 Sep;3(3):357-65
Date
Sep-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Diet - standards
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Female
Health status
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Male
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Public Health
United States
Abstract
The USA and Canada both want to reduce social health inequalities in their population. These two countries have recently begun a process of harmonization of their nutrient recommendations.
To develop a standardized indicator to measure the impact of these recommendations on the health of different social groups in North America. The authors have compared three of the methods currently used for measuring overall diet quality for a population.
The three methods, adjusted to the 1990 Canadian nutrition recommendations, were used to analyse the Québec Nutrition Survey data collected by Santé Québec in 1990.
The authors found that the indicator developed by Kennedy and collaborators works best for analysing the Québec data. Moreover, it allows comparisons with the USA. Some questions, such as whether or not to add calories from alcohol consumption to the model and whether the indicators should be adjusted to the different cultures and specific population groups remain unanswered.
In order to determine the role of nutrition in social health inequalities, it is important to develop standard indicators that are suitable for monitoring the relationship between dietary recommendations and eating habits.
PubMed ID
10979155 View in PubMed
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Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277442
Source
Appetite. 2016 Mar 1;98:12-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2016
Author
Annechen Bahr Bugge
Source
Appetite. 2016 Mar 1;98:12-8
Date
Mar-1-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administrative Personnel
Adolescent
Advertising as Topic
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Food Habits
Food Industry
Humans
Male
Norway
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Abstract
Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet.
PubMed ID
26689892 View in PubMed
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Conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999: translating results into nutrition policy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181818
Source
Salud Publica Mex. 2003;45 Suppl 4:S565-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Juan A Rivera
Jaime Sepúlveda Amor
Author Affiliation
Centro de Investigación en Nutrición y Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Avenida Universidad No 655, colonia Santa María Ahuacatitlan, 62508 Cuernavaca Morelos, México. jrivera@insp.mx
Source
Salud Publica Mex. 2003;45 Suppl 4:S565-75
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anemia - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Failure to Thrive - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Mexico - epidemiology
Micronutrients - deficiency
Middle Aged
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Prevalence
Abstract
This article presents and overview of the main results and conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999) and the principal nutrition policy implications of the findings.
The NNS-1999 was conducted on a national probabilistic sample of almost 18,000 households, representative of the national, regional, as well as urban and rural levels in Mexico. Subjects included were children
PubMed ID
14746051 View in PubMed
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Dietary intake and risk factors for poor diet quality among children in Nova Scotia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174637
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 May-Jun;96(3):212-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Paul J Veugelers
Angela L Fitzgerald
Elizabeth Johnston
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health & Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 May-Jun;96(3):212-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Energy intake
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Male
Nova Scotia
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Schools
Students
Abstract
Public health policies promote healthy nutrition but evaluations of children's adherence to dietary recommendations and studies of risk factors of poor nutrition are scarce, despite the importance of diet for the temporal increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Here we examine dietary intake and risk factors for poor diet quality among children in Nova Scotia to provide direction for health policies and prevention initiatives.
In 2003, we surveyed 5,200 grade five students from 282 public schools in Nova Scotia, as well as their parents. We assessed students' dietary intake (Harvard's Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire) and compared this with Canadian food group and nutrient recommendations. We summarized diet quality using the Diet Quality Index International, and used multilevel regression methods to evaluate potential child, parental and school risk factors for poor diet quality.
In Nova Scotia, 42.3% of children did not meet recommendations for milk products nor did they meet recommendations for the food groups 'Vegetables and fruit' (49.9%), 'Grain products' (54.4%) and 'Meat and alternatives' (73.7%). Children adequately met nutrient requirements with the exception of calcium and fibre, of which intakes were low, and dietary fat and sodium, of which intakes were high. Skipping meals and purchasing meals at school or fast-food restaurants were statistically significant determinants of poor diet. Parents' assessment of their own eating habits was positively associated with the quality of their children's diets.
Dietary intake among children in Nova Scotia is relatively poor. Explicit public health policies and prevention initiatives targeting children, their parents and schools may improve diet quality and prevent obesity.
PubMed ID
15913088 View in PubMed
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Comparative analysis of nutrition data from national, household, and individual levels: results from a WHO-CINDI collaborative project in Canada, Finland, Poland, and Spain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187331
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Jan;57(1):74-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
L. Serra-Majem
D. MacLean
L. Ribas
D. Brulé
W. Sekula
R. Prattala
R. Garcia-Closas
A. Yngve
M. Lalonde
A. Petrasovits
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. lserra@dcc.ulpgc.es
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Jan;57(1):74-80
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Child
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Diet Surveys
Energy intake
Finland
Food Habits
Humans
Middle Aged
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Status
Poland
Spain
Abstract
This project determined to what extent data on diet and nutrition, which were collected in a non-uniform manner, could be harmonised and pooled for international and national comparison.
Direct comparisons of dietary data between studies were made using food balance sheets (FBS), household budget surveys (HBS), and individual dietary data (IDS); comparisons were also made within countries. Differences in study design and methodological approaches were taken into consideration. Data from research projects from the following four World Health Organisation (WHO) Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Disease Intervention (CINDI) countries were included-Canada, Finland, Poland, and Spain.
FBS overestimated food consumption and nutrient intake compared to IDS. Results between HBS and IDS were quite similar, except for fish, meat, pulses and vegetables, which were underestimated by HBS, and sugar and honey and cereals, which were overestimated. Percentages of energy from fat, carbohydrates and proteins were higher when estimated from FBS, HBS, and IDS respectively.
Results suggest that estimations from these three sources of dietary data are difficult to compare because they are measuring different levels of dietary information. The understanding of their relations may be important in formulating and evaluating a nutrition policy.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12490653 View in PubMed
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38 records – page 1 of 4.