Fortification with calcium to increase dietary intakes of this mineral is currently under evaluation in Canada. To model the potential dietary consequences of food fortification, data from a large national survey of Canadians (n = 1543) were used. Food fortification scenarios were based on reference amounts for labeling requirements. Consumption of milk, cheese and other dairy products was associated with high calcium intakes, and there was a low prevalence of inadequacy in men
The objective of this study is to assess population-level trends in children's dietary intake and weight status before and after the implementation of a provincial school nutrition policy in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Self-reported dietary behavior and nutrient intake and measured body mass index were collected as part of a population-level study with grade 5 students in 2003 (n=5215) and 2011 (5508), prior to and following implementation of the policy. We applied random effects regression methods to assess the effect of the policy on dietary and health outcomes.
In 2011, students reported consuming more milk products, while there was no difference in mean consumption of vegetables and fruits in adjusted models. Adjusted regression analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Despite significant temporal decreases in dietary energy intake and increases in diet quality, prevalence rates of overweight and obesity continued to increase.
This population-level intervention research suggests a positive influence of school nutrition policies on diet quality, energy intake and healthy beverage consumption, and that more action beyond schools is needed to curb the increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity.
Cites: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3476-8414608061
Cites: Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011 Apr;6(2):142-820874077
Food-based dietary guidelines in Denmark have usually been expressed in simple terms only and need to be elaborated. Quantitative recommendations on fruit and vegetable intake were issued in 1998, recommending 600 g/d (potatoes not included). This paper is based on a national dietary survey in 1995 (n = 3098, age range 1-80 years) supplemented with data from a simple frequency survey in 1995 (n = 1007, age range 15-80 years) and from the first national survey in 1985 (n = 2242, age range 15-80 years). Only data on adults are included in this paper. Fat intake, saturated fat in particular, is too high (median intake 37 %energy and 16 %energy, respectively). Main fat sources are separated fats (butter, margarine, oil, etc.: 40%), meat (18%), and dairy products (21%). Total fat intake decreased from 1985 to 1995 but fatty acid composition did not improve. Dietary fibre intake is from 18 to 22 g/d (women and men, respectively) with 62% from cereals, 24% from vegetables and 12% from fruit. Mean intake of vegetables and potatoes was from 200 to 250 g/d (women and men, respectively). Mean intake of fruit and vegetables (potatoes not included) was 277 g/d, or less than half of the new recommendation (600 g/d). Only 15% of participants in the frequency survey reported consuming both fruit and vegetables every day, and only 28% reported to do so almost every day. In conclusion, dietary intake in Denmark is characterized by a high intake of saturated fat and total fat, and by a relatively low intake of fruit and vegetables.
For individuals, a statistical approach is available to compare observed intakes to the EAR or AI (to assess adequacy), and the UL (to assess risk of excess). A more qualitative assessment of intakes involves comparison directly to the RDA to evaluate adequacy, but this is accurate only if long-term usual intake is known. For groups of people, the prevalence of inadequacy can usually be estimated as the proportion with intakes below the EAR, while the prevalence of potentially excessive intakes is estimated as the proportion above the UL. The accuracy of all assessments depends on unbiased and accurate intake estimates as well as a consideration of the effects of day-to-day variation in intake. Nutrition practitioners will find the new DRIs useful for assessing diets in a variety of settings. Computerized assessment systems will be important tools when incorporating these theoretical concepts into dietetic practice.
The USA and Canada both want to reduce social health inequalities in their population. These two countries have recently begun a process of harmonization of their nutrient recommendations.
To develop a standardized indicator to measure the impact of these recommendations on the health of different social groups in North America. The authors have compared three of the methods currently used for measuring overall diet quality for a population.
The three methods, adjusted to the 1990 Canadian nutrition recommendations, were used to analyse the Québec Nutrition Survey data collected by Santé Québec in 1990.
The authors found that the indicator developed by Kennedy and collaborators works best for analysing the Québec data. Moreover, it allows comparisons with the USA. Some questions, such as whether or not to add calories from alcohol consumption to the model and whether the indicators should be adjusted to the different cultures and specific population groups remain unanswered.
In order to determine the role of nutrition in social health inequalities, it is important to develop standard indicators that are suitable for monitoring the relationship between dietary recommendations and eating habits.
One of the effective ways of normalization of micronutrients deficiency (vitamins, mineral substances etc.) for children and adult population--use of the specialized foodstuffs enriched with essential food substances in a daily diet is considered in the paper. On the basis of the analysis of foreign experience and the data accumulated as a result of performance of some state scientific and technical programs and the major projects of the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technologies of the Russian Federation, the basic scientific principles of enrichment of foodstuffs with vitamins and mineral substances are considered. In view of these principles the wide range of products of preventive purpose is developed: bakery, confectionery products, grain concentrates, dry mixes for preparation of the beverages, enriched with vitamins and some mineral substances (iron, calcium, magnesium). Large-scale clinical approbation of the developed products on various groups of the population (children of preschool and school age, pregnant women, workers of hard trades, patients with hypertonic disease, diabetes), has shown their efficiency both in the improvement of the vitamin status of surveyed and some therapeutic parameters. Circulars, instruction on application, methodical recommendations are developed and authorized.
Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet.
This article presents and overview of the main results and conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999) and the principal nutrition policy implications of the findings.
The NNS-1999 was conducted on a national probabilistic sample of almost 18,000 households, representative of the national, regional, as well as urban and rural levels in Mexico. Subjects included were children
This project determined to what extent data on diet and nutrition, which were collected in a non-uniform manner, could be harmonised and pooled for international and national comparison.
Direct comparisons of dietary data between studies were made using food balance sheets (FBS), household budget surveys (HBS), and individual dietary data (IDS); comparisons were also made within countries. Differences in study design and methodological approaches were taken into consideration. Data from research projects from the following four World Health Organisation (WHO) Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Disease Intervention (CINDI) countries were included-Canada, Finland, Poland, and Spain.
FBS overestimated food consumption and nutrient intake compared to IDS. Results between HBS and IDS were quite similar, except for fish, meat, pulses and vegetables, which were underestimated by HBS, and sugar and honey and cereals, which were overestimated. Percentages of energy from fat, carbohydrates and proteins were higher when estimated from FBS, HBS, and IDS respectively.
Results suggest that estimations from these three sources of dietary data are difficult to compare because they are measuring different levels of dietary information. The understanding of their relations may be important in formulating and evaluating a nutrition policy.
Public health policies promote healthy nutrition but evaluations of children's adherence to dietary recommendations and studies of risk factors of poor nutrition are scarce, despite the importance of diet for the temporal increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Here we examine dietary intake and risk factors for poor diet quality among children in Nova Scotia to provide direction for health policies and prevention initiatives.
In 2003, we surveyed 5,200 grade five students from 282 public schools in Nova Scotia, as well as their parents. We assessed students' dietary intake (Harvard's Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire) and compared this with Canadian food group and nutrient recommendations. We summarized diet quality using the Diet Quality Index International, and used multilevel regression methods to evaluate potential child, parental and school risk factors for poor diet quality.
In Nova Scotia, 42.3% of children did not meet recommendations for milk products nor did they meet recommendations for the food groups 'Vegetables and fruit' (49.9%), 'Grain products' (54.4%) and 'Meat and alternatives' (73.7%). Children adequately met nutrient requirements with the exception of calcium and fibre, of which intakes were low, and dietary fat and sodium, of which intakes were high. Skipping meals and purchasing meals at school or fast-food restaurants were statistically significant determinants of poor diet. Parents' assessment of their own eating habits was positively associated with the quality of their children's diets.
Dietary intake among children in Nova Scotia is relatively poor. Explicit public health policies and prevention initiatives targeting children, their parents and schools may improve diet quality and prevent obesity.