The method of daily ration reproduction was used to study the actual nutrition of 25% of male subsampling comprising 674 subjects, during the epidemiological investigation of unorganized male population in a region of Ufa. The results of the study have shown that the caloric value of their nutrition does not exceed the established standards and is diminished with age. Protein consumption meets the physiological requirements, animal proteins prevail in their structure. Carbohydrate consumption is low, mainly at the expense of starch, while the share of sugar is high. Fat consumption exceeds the values recommended, mainly at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Cholesterol consumption is excessive. The established nutrition imbalance of the main food substances has evidenced the atherogenic character of the population nutrition, prevalence of animal food products in its structure, that should be taken into consideration when measures for the prevention of coronary heart disease are elaborated.
Simultaneous epidemiologic investigations of representative samplings of the male population, aged from 30 to 59 years, were carried out in Chukot Peninsula and the Buryat ASSR in 1981-1982 and 1985-1986 years. The programme of the study included standard questioning to reveal angina of effort according to the WHO Cardiologic Questionnaire, ECG recording at rest, arterial pressure measuring (twice), anthropometry, biochemical blood assay (the content of total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol). Actual nutrition was studied by the method of "daily reproduction" in 104 residents of Markovskaya tundra (85.3%), in 165 residents of Chukot Peninsula (73.4%) and in 476 residents of the Buryat ASSR (95.2% of the planned number). Differences have been revealed in the characteristics of nutrition and blood lipid content between the native residents of Chukot Peninsula and the Buryat ASSR. Certain relationship has been determined between dyslipoproteinemia incidence and differences in the nutrition of the compared population groups.
To estimate energy, nutrient intake and diet adequacy in school-aged children based on the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006).
Food intake data from food frequency questionnaires was analyzed for 8 716 children aged 5 to 11 years. Energy and nutrients intake and adequacy were obtained. Comparisons were made at regional, urban/rural areas, socioeconomic status (SES) and nutrition status (body mass index and height/age).
Median energy intake was 1501 kcal/d (percent adequacy: 88.0). Overweight and obesity prevalence was 25.5%. Stunting prevalence was 10%. Children at lowest SES, indigenous and from rural communities showed the highest inadequacies for vitamin A, folate, zinc, and calcium. Overweight children and those highest SES had higher risk of excessive intakes.
Coexistence of over- and undernutrition reflects a polarized model of nutrition transition among Mexican children.
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the consumption of unfiltered coffee brews, which contain the cholesterol-raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, in elderly subjects. DESIGN: Interviews of randomly selected elderly in the 1993 SENECA Study on Nutrition and the Elderly in Europe. SETTING: Nine towns in eight European countries (Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland, Poland, and Northern Ireland/United Kingdom). SUBJECTS: 962 relatively healthy elderly persons (460 men, 502 women) born between 1913 and 1918. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Daily coffee consumption, classified by brewing technique. RESULTS: About 90 percent of the examinees were daily coffee users in Roskilde/Denmark (population means; men 530 ml/d, women 425 ml/d) and Culemborg/the Netherlands (men 513 ml/d, women 285 ml/d), against only 12% in Marki/Poland (population means; men 14 ml/d, women 36 ml/d) and 7% in Coimbra/Portugal (men 8 ml/d, women 0 ml/d). Drip-filtered and instant coffee, which are poor in diterpenes, were the prevalent types in most survey towns. Espresso and mocha coffee, which contain intermediate amounts of diterpenes, were consumed daily by 31% of the coffee drinkers in Switzerland and by all coffee drinkers in Italy, but intake was too low to substantially affect serum cholesterol levels. Consumption of brews that are rich in diterpenes, such as cafetiere, boiled, or Turkish/Greek coffee, was negligible in all survey towns. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee drinking is common among elderly people in some European countries, but intake of cafestol and kahweol with unfiltered coffee brews is low.
Dietary intake of carbohydrates for Russian population increased from 50% to 54% of total energy intake at the expense of increasing of dietary intake of potatoes and bread products. This level of carbohydrate intake is in the normal value do not causing serious caution in relation to public health. Main resource of carbohydrates in russian diet is dietary intake of bread and bread products (about 53% of total intake), sugar and confections (25%) and potatoes (10%). Carbohydrates of fruits and vegetables make up about 5%, those of milk and diary food aso 5% of total dietary carbohydrates. Daily average intake of crude dietary fibers compose no more than 10 g per capita. Simple carbohydrates (sum of mono- and disugars) provide for about 20% of total energy intake and pure sugar gives about 12% of total energy intake of Russia's population.
To document the energy and nutrient intake of Mexican preschool children using data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006).
Dietary data from 3 552 children less than 5 years old collected through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analyzed. Energy and nutrient daily intakes and adequacies were calculated. Comparisons were made by geographic region, residence locality, and socioeconomic status.
The Mexico City region showed the highest energy (103.2%), carbohydrate (109.9%), and fat (110.1%) adequacies. The highest proportion of preschoolers with energy and micronutrients inadequacy (adequacy
In a group of 528 men, 30-54 years old, answers to various questions about dietary habits given in a questionnaire were compared to corresponding information given in a dietary history interview two years later. High concordance was found between the two methods for questions concerning types of foods most commonly used. For most food items, the mean intake according to the dietary recall corresponds well with intake reported in the questionnaire. For food items used every day in easily recorded units (slices of bread, cups of coffee, glasses of milk), the frequency questionnaire can be used to rank individuals according to consumption. For other food items, the concordance is less satisfactory.