Department of Paediatrics, Division of Paediatric Nephrology, Children's Hospital, London Health Science Centre, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
The 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts have been widely adopted by Canadian dieticians for growth monitoring of Canadian children rather than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) reference data. It has been unclear as to which is the most appropriate.
We calculated height and weight z-scores of 3086 consecutive patients (1530 female, 49.6%) aged 0-5 years, attending outpatient clinics at a single tertiary care centre using reference data of the latest NHANES survey and the 2006 WHO growth charts. To address age dependency, data were stratified into age groups. Gender dependency was also investigated.
Using NHANES III reference intervals, medians of both height z-score (+0.24) and weight z-score (+0.32) were significantly non-zero. The WHO growth charts yielded medians of height z-score (-0.15) and weight z-score (+0.36) respectively, also significantly non-zero. When comparing both reference populations for the entire cohort, Canadian children had significantly different height z-scores whereas weight z-scores did not differ. Age classification revealed a significant age dependency with NHANES III charts yielding higher weight z-scores for up to 8 months and lower z-scores from 8 to 26 months. No significant differences were observed for older than 26 months. Throughout, height z-scores were significantly higher with NHANES III charts across all age groups, with a degree of overestimation higher in younger boys than older ones.
Our results reveal substantial differences between both reference populations and thus interpretation needs to be done with caution, especially when labelling results as abnormal.
The aim of this article is to study the problem of the nutritional status of children in a modern Russian family. This work is based on the analysis of statistical data of the results of a sample survey of households' budgets, reflecting the interrelationship between the standard of living of the Russian family and children, its material wealth, the possibility of high quality, high-grade nutrition for all its members, especially children. The standard of living, the share of food expenditure, the consumption of basic food groups, the nutritive and energy value of diets in households with children (a family with one child, two, three or more children) were studied. The article discusses the issues related to the limited consumption of various food products in families with children. There is an increase in consumption of bread products and potatoes, as well as sugar and confectionery products in all types of households with children, but especially in large families, while reducing the consumption of other groups of products. The paper presents an analysis of the nutritive and energy value of the diet in all types of families surveyed. It is emphasized that in households with one or two children the nutritive value of the diet is significantly higher than in large families. In the diet of large families there is a lackof protein (11.8% of calories). The fat content in the diet of families with children exceeds the recommended level (34.8-36.6% of calories). In general, the quality of nutrition in families with one child is higher than in households with two or more children. The nutritional status of children in families with low incomes, which often include the average family with the birth of a child, especially several, does not correspond to the medical and biological standards approved for modern society. Obviously, the higher is living standard of the population, the lower is the share of expenditure on food, and vice versa. With the advent of children, the living standard of a household decreases. Thus, according to official data, the share of food expenditures in families with children in 2016 was 34.4% of the family budget for families raising one child, 36.9% for families raising two children, 40.1% for households with three or more children. Accordingly, the lower is the living standard of the family, the less they spend on maintaining the health of children, their education and recreation. The paper emphasizes that the problem of rational nutrition of the population has a pronounced social and economic significance and belongs to the global categories that play a significant role in ensuring the quality of life of a person, maintaining his health and longevity of life.
The present research was directed on study of an actual meal and status of nutrition of children in the age of from birth till 5 years living in Murmansk (region of Far North). 998 children were surveyed. At an estimation of an actual meal of children the data about breast feeding are received, the basic nutrients misbalance of structure of diets of children are established, and their reasons are analyzed. On the basis of the received data the regional recommendations for organization of a healthy meal in children's preschool establishments and program of hygienic training of the parents to skills of a balanced diet of children of early and junior age were developed.
Because of the high frequency of nursing mothers there is concensus that, in general, the diet of Norwegian newborns is good for the first six months of life. However, several publications have questioned the recommendations concerning the babies' diet from the age of six to 12 months with respect to time of weaning and introduction of cow's milk, and intake of energy, fat-soluble vitamins, iron and essential fatty acids. The Norwegian National Nutrition Council has therefore evaluated the available data, and has adjusted some of the recommendations, including the recommendations for energy intake, energy percent from fat and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1994 Jan 10;114(1):647779172