Assess sensitivity and specificity of each of the 18 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) questionnaire items to determine whether a rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible in an Inuit population.
Food insecurity prevalence was assessed by the 18-item USDA HFSSM in a randomized sample of Inuit households participating in the Inuit Health Survey and the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. Questions were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (+/2), and total percent accuracy for adult and child food insecurity (yes/no). Child food security items were evaluated for both surveys.
For children, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when it was not possible to feed the children a healthy meal because there was not enough money?” had the best performance in both samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 97.3%, respectively, for the Inuit Health Survey, and 88.5% and 95.4% for the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. For adults, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when the food for you and your family just did not last and there was no money to buy more?” demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 93.4%.
Rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible and may be a useful tool for health care and social service providers. However, as prevalence and severity of food insecurity change over time, rapid assessment techniques should not replace periodic screening by using the full USDA HFSSM questionnaire.
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition and Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, 21,111 Lakeshore Road, Ste Anne de Bellevue, H9X 3V9, Québec, Canada.
To describe dietary habits and extent of overweight and obesity among Cree youth.
Dietary intake and habits were assessed by a 24 h recall and FFQ as part of a cross-sectional survey.
Three Cree communities in northern Québec, Canada.
A total of 125 youth aged 9-18 years.
Overall 67·6 % of the study population was either at risk of overweight or overweight. Over 98 % had a usual saturated fat intake over 10 % of energy while 65 % had a lower consumption of fruit/vegetables and 95 % had a lower consumption of milk and milk products than recommended by Canada's Food Guide. The majority (96·8 %) consumed high-fat foods (>40 % of total energy as fat), which accounted for 39 % of total energy intake (EI). Similarly, 92·8 % consumed high-sugar food and beverages (>25 % of total energy as sugar), which accounted for 12·8 % of total EI. Furthermore, 95 % of the youth had a Healthy Eating Index (HEI) below the recommended score of 80 or above. Certain measures of diet quality (traditional food (TF) consumption, HEI and vegetables and fruit consumption) were significantly correlated with adiposity measures.
A high prevalence of low-diet quality was found with a high degree of sugar and fat intake and a low consumption of vegetables/fruit and milk/milk alternates and any weekly TF. Dietary interventions are sorely needed.
Accelerated loss of traditional lifestyles may place Inuit at risk of iron depletion given that anemia has been observed among Arctic men. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of anemia, storage iron depletion, and iron overload and to identify correlates of iron status in Canadian Inuit men. In a cross-sectional survey of 994 men in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008, hemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), soluble transferrin receptor (on a subset), CRP, RBC fatty acid composition, and Helicobacter pylori serology were measured in venous blood drawn from fasting men. Anthropometric, dietary, sociodemographic, and health data were collected. Dietary and nondietary correlates of iron status were assessed with multiple linear and logistic models. For men with CRP =10 mg/L (n = 804), 6.5% had depleted, 19.8% had low, and 10.3% had elevated iron stores. Anemia was moderately prevalent (16.1%), but iron deficiency anemia was less common (2.4%). There was a low probability of dietary iron inadequacy (2.4% Tolerable Upper Intake Level). Food-insecure men and those without a household hunter had a higher risk of low or depleted iron stores. Adiposity, traditional food intake, long-chain RBC PUFA status, and inflammation were positively associated with SF and food insecurity, smoking, and H. pylori seropositivity were negatively associated with SF. Despite a moderate prevalence of anemia, iron stores are largely adequate in this population, although lower than expected based on iron intake. The regulation of iron metabolism in this population and the high prevalence of anemia in older men warrants further investigation.