This paper considers the association of nutrition habits with the development of various noninfectious diseases, including chronic diseases. Stress that is followed by arrest and juridical processes, in combination with other factors attended by criminal sanctions as imprisonment also negatively affect the health status of a special contingent of the penitentiary system. Our studies have ascertained the association between the qualitative and quantitative composition of food and the health status of convicts.
In 1930 a nutrition survey was made of 1675 school children in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. In 1967 a second survey was carried out in the same area, covering 1411 children aged 4, 8 and 13 years. A third survey was carried out in 1980 of 572 children in the same age groups. In the first survey questionnaires concerning food consumption were used, in the two later surveys 24-hour recall of food intake was recorded. Underweight and iron deficiency anaemia were prevalent in 1930. Since then socio-economic conditions have improved dramatically and dietary habits have become more diversified. In the last study the average energy intake had decreased from 100 to 87% of the RDA. A slight increase in the prevalence of overweight among 13-year-old children was also noted. The fat intake was lower in 1980 than in 1967, but the P/S-ratio was still low (0.23). The iron intake reached a satisfactory level in the two later studies and no case of iron-deficiency anaemia was found in 1980. In spite of a relatively frequent sucrose intake dental health had improved as a consequence of other prophylactic activities. The malnutrition problems of 1930 have been eradicated but new nutritional problems, linked to the risk of developing obesity and health problems in adulthood such as coronary heart disease, call for new preventive strategies.
The authors have devised a pack of applied programs for statistic data treatment, which can be used for studying problems of nutrition and the health status of children, for design of rational diets by the research institutes and childhood establishments sponsored by the public health and education systems, as well as by trade unions.
The USA and Canada both want to reduce social health inequalities in their population. These two countries have recently begun a process of harmonization of their nutrient recommendations.
To develop a standardized indicator to measure the impact of these recommendations on the health of different social groups in North America. The authors have compared three of the methods currently used for measuring overall diet quality for a population.
The three methods, adjusted to the 1990 Canadian nutrition recommendations, were used to analyse the Québec Nutrition Survey data collected by Santé Québec in 1990.
The authors found that the indicator developed by Kennedy and collaborators works best for analysing the Québec data. Moreover, it allows comparisons with the USA. Some questions, such as whether or not to add calories from alcohol consumption to the model and whether the indicators should be adjusted to the different cultures and specific population groups remain unanswered.
In order to determine the role of nutrition in social health inequalities, it is important to develop standard indicators that are suitable for monitoring the relationship between dietary recommendations and eating habits.
Diets, energy expenditures, physical and mental performance, anthropometric indices, ascorbic acid excretion, and morbidity rates were studied in 7-9-year-old schoolchildren of Monchegorsk, Murmansk Region. The alimentary features found served as the basis for developing sanitary recommendations to optimize diets and to promote children's health.
It has been established that nutrition of schoolchildren of a number of cities and villages of the Ukrainian republic is diversified as regards the assortment and has a high content of almost all food substances and energy. Deficiency of individual food substances is a consequence of wrong attitude of children to a number of foods, particularly to milk and dairy products, to fruit and vegetables. The majority of the children have been found to be physically fit and harmonically developed. Unbalance of foods has been demonstrated to lead to dysharmonic physical development, particularly to a high percentage of obese children. The measures have been defined, whose introduction will contribute to the improvement of schoolchildren's nutrition.