To examine longitudinal trends in use of nutrition information among Canadians.
Population-based telephone and Internet surveys.
Representative samples of Canadian adults recruited with random-digit dialing sampling in 2004 (n = 2,405) and 2006 (n = 2,014) and an online commercial panel in 2008 (n = 2,001).
Sociodemographic predictors of label use, use of nutrition information sources, and nutrient content information.
Linear and logistic regression models to examine predictors and changes over time.
Food product labels were the most common source of nutritional information in 2008 (67%), followed by the Internet (51%) and magazines/newspapers (43%). The Internet was the only source to significantly increase during the study period (odds ratio = 1.39; P
The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of adolescents, based on a Web-based 24-h recall, and to investigate dietary predictors of GI and GL. In addition, the relationship between GI and GL and weight status was examined. A Web-based 24-h recall was completed by 4936 adolescents, aged 9-17 years; macronutrient and food group intakes were assessed using the ESHA Food Processor, the Canadian Nutrient File, and Canada's Food Guide. Dietary GI and GL were calculated based on published GI values for foods. Students provided self-reported height and mass. Multiple regression models assessed the ability of food group choices and food behaviours to predict GI and GL. Mean GI was 55 for girls and 56 for boys. Mean GL was 128 for girls and 168 for boys. Food group choices explained 26% of the variation in GI (p
Daily practices related to eating are embedded in the social and cultural contexts of everyday life. How are such factors associated with diet quality relative to motivational factors? And, are associations universal or context-specific? We analyze the relationship between diet quality and the following practices: social company while eating, the regularity and duration of eating and the activity of watching TV while eating.
A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based internet survey was conducted in April 2012 with stratified random samples of the populations (aged 15-80 years) in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (N=7531, completion rate 9-13%). The questionnaire elicited detailed accounts of one day of eating focusing on social and practical aspects of eating events. The validated Dietary Quality Score was the dependent variable. This measure is based on eight food frequency questions focusing on fats, vegetables, fruits and fish in the diet.
Eating activities were associated with diet quality even when motivation to eat healthily and sociodemographic factors were controlled for. The number of daily eating events and eating main meals was positively correlated with diet quality in all countries. Beyond that, activities that were significantly associated with diet quality varied with country. When measured separately, the association between each activity and diet quality was weaker than motivation to eat healthily, but in combinations that are found in parts of the populations, the association was substantial.
Daily practices related to eating are correlated with diet quality. Practices that are important are in part universal but also country-specific. Efforts to promote healthy eating should address not only cognitive factors but also everyday contexts of eating that facilitate or hamper healthy practices.
A web-based cross-country survey of renal registered dietitians (RRDs) was launched. It was used to assess whether or not their clinical practice in identifying and treating protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and dialysis was based on current nutrition practice guidelines (NPGs). The survey included questions on strategies, timelines, and markers used for the identification and treatment of PEM. Fifty-nine RRDs responded (21%). Sixty-seven percent did not base clinical practice on NPGs, while 33% indicated they followed the guidelines. Of those who followed guidelines, 76% use the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative nutrition guidelines. Strategies used to identify and treat PEM were not related to duration of RRD experience in nephrology, but were significantly different between guidelines users and non-users. Guideline users commonly used key nutrition treatment strategies that included enteral/parenteral nutrition and medication therapy. The clinical practice of RRD is typically based on expert opinion/consensus, rather than on evidence-based practice guidelines (EBPG). It remains unclear if differences in RRDs' adoption of clinical guidelines influences patient outcomes, particularly in the treatment of PEM. Up-to-date EBPG need to be developed for the identification and treatment of PEM in patients with ESRD.
Mycotoxin producing moulds may contaminate numerous agricultural commodities either before harvest or during storage. A varied diet consisting of different foods may therefore be contaminated with a range of mycotoxins. The aim of the present study was to study concurrent exposure to mycotoxins through urinary multi-biomarker analysis, as well as its possible associations with the diet. Urinary samples from 252 adults, participating in the Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten 2010-11, were collected together with a 4-day diet record. Concurrent mycotoxin exposure was studied using a multi-biomarker LC-MS/MS method. The results revealed that exposure to mycotoxins is common and concurrent exposure to more than one toxin was found in 69% of the study population. However, when comparing the number of toxins detected with the reported consumption data it was difficult to distinguish food patterns which would indicate an increased risk of exposure to many mycotoxins simultaneously. This is the first study to investigate concurrent mycotoxin exposure and urinary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), nivalenol (NIV), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), a-zearalenol (a-ZOL), ß-zearalenol (ß-ZOL) and de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1) among adults in Sweden.
The main purpose of this study is to identify consumer segments based on the importance of product attributes when buying seafood for homemade meals on weekdays. There is a particular focus on the relative importance of the packaging attributes of fresh seafood. The results are based on a representative survey of 840 Norwegian consumers between 18 and 80 years of age. This study found that taste, freshness, nutritional value and naturalness are the most important attributes for the home consumption of seafood. Except for the high importance of information about expiration date, most other packaging attributes have only medium importance. Three consumer segments are identified based on the importance of 33 attributes associated with seafood: Perfectionists, Quality Conscious and Careless Consumers. The Quality Conscious consumers feel more self-confident in their evaluation of quality, and are less concerned with packaging, branding, convenience and emotional benefits compared to the Perfectionists. Careless Consumers are important as regular consumers of convenient and pre-packed seafood products and value recipe information on the packaging. The seafood industry may use the results provided in this study to strengthen their positioning of seafood across three different consumer segments.