Food-based dietary guidelines in Denmark have usually been expressed in simple terms only and need to be elaborated. Quantitative recommendations on fruit and vegetable intake were issued in 1998, recommending 600 g/d (potatoes not included). This paper is based on a national dietary survey in 1995 (n = 3098, age range 1-80 years) supplemented with data from a simple frequency survey in 1995 (n = 1007, age range 15-80 years) and from the first national survey in 1985 (n = 2242, age range 15-80 years). Only data on adults are included in this paper. Fat intake, saturated fat in particular, is too high (median intake 37 %energy and 16 %energy, respectively). Main fat sources are separated fats (butter, margarine, oil, etc.: 40%), meat (18%), and dairy products (21%). Total fat intake decreased from 1985 to 1995 but fatty acid composition did not improve. Dietary fibre intake is from 18 to 22 g/d (women and men, respectively) with 62% from cereals, 24% from vegetables and 12% from fruit. Mean intake of vegetables and potatoes was from 200 to 250 g/d (women and men, respectively). Mean intake of fruit and vegetables (potatoes not included) was 277 g/d, or less than half of the new recommendation (600 g/d). Only 15% of participants in the frequency survey reported consuming both fruit and vegetables every day, and only 28% reported to do so almost every day. In conclusion, dietary intake in Denmark is characterized by a high intake of saturated fat and total fat, and by a relatively low intake of fruit and vegetables.
The principles of collecting and analysis of information on nutrition in epidemiological study of cardiovascular diseases by means of electronic computers are described. A special program computes the consumption of 11 nutrients, the calorific value of the diet, and the calorie percentage of different nutrients with the exception of cholesterol. Certain coefficients are estimated, such as the ratio between the poly-unsaturated and the saturated fatty acids in the diet, and the ratio between the amount of starch and the total amount of refined and unrefined sugar, Well-trained technical personnel may be entrusted with the collection of the information, its coding, perforation, and feeding into the computer and with the obtainment of the data, which reduces the cost of the study considerably.
Out of a total of 158 pregnant women, 55 accepted participation in a dietary investigation for seven days with the object of assessing the consumption of milk by pregnant women and the significance of this for the intake of energy-providing dietary constituents and certain minerals. The diet in pregnant women contained more fat (43.2%) and the relationship between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (P/S-relationship) (0.25) was less than that recommended. The daily dietary content of fibre of 20.7 g/day was lower than the recommended intake. Calcium, phosphate and magnesium intakes constituted 180%, 131% and 64% respectively, of the recommended daily intake. The average intake of milk (buttermilk, skim milk, low fat milk and whole milk) was 482 g/day. The calcium content of the milk constituted, on an average, one third of the total calcium intake. The content of fat and saturated fatty acids in the milk constituted 7% and 10%, respectively, of the total intake. Four of the pregnant women had a daily calcium consumption of less than the recommended intake (1,000 mg/day). The same women had the lowest consumption of milk and energy in the group investigated. The results suggest that the dietary consumption is adequate to cover the calcium requirements. Extra calcium supplements should only be recommended for pregnant women with limited consumption of milk and other milk products. Pregnant women should be advised to take increased quantities of magnesium and to reduce the fat intake.
The objective of this study was to compare the nutrient content of foods and diets based on data from two food composition databases used in the Baltic Nutrition Surveys (conducted in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 1997): an adapted version of the Finnish Micro-Nutrica Nutritional Analysis program (used in Estonia) and the Russian Institute of Nutrition Food Composition Database (used in Latvia and Lithuania).
The adapted Micro-Nutrica and Russian databases were used to estimate the energy and nutrient (protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin C, calcium and iron) content of 15 common foodstuffs in the region and the nutrient intakes of 32 Latvian respondents (based on 24-h recalls). Differences between databases were estimated.
There were discrepancies in the energy and nutrient content of the 15 selected foods using the two databases. The adapted Micro-Nutrica database generally gave a lower energy content than the Russian database (median: -6%), and a lower fat content for typically fat-rich foods. Intakes of energy, fat, carbohydrate and calcium by the 32 selected respondents were significantly lower when the Micro-Nutrica database was used. Differences were particularly high for fat (difference=-23.5%, 95% confidence interval=-31.1 to -15.8%, P
A nutrition survey was conducted as part of a larger cardiovascular risk study undertaken by the Manitoba Heart Health Project. A representative group of Manitobans participated in the study, 68% of whom reported their food intake using a food frequency questionnaire. After verifying and merging data from the nutrition and risk factor questionnaires used in the survey, 2,115 were used in data analysis. Results are reported by gender for three age groups. The proportion of food energy derived from total fat varied between 35.3% for senior females and 40.2% for young males. Food of seniors contained a lower proportion of energy from fat than that of either of the two younger age groups. In all three age groups, men consumed diets with a higher proportion of fat than did women. People in regional centres and rural areas obtained higher proportions of energy from fat than did people in Winnipeg. Fat intake from butter, margarine or spreads eaten with bread and potatoes was high compared to the intake from other foods.
The objective of this study was to initiate a community surveillance of fat consumption, using a food frequency questionnaire. We surveyed 584 French speaking adults, using a telephone-administered questionnaire. A response rate of 84% was obtained, and the sample was representative of Lanaudière's population in terms of age and sex. The index was computed by determining the daily consumption of fat in grams from 13 food items. The index's median value was 39.5 grams (g) of fat per day, the upper quartile 58.5% g/day the lower quartile 26.5 g/day of fat. Using a weighted least squares regression analysis we tested whether people residing in the northern zone had a higher index value. Sex, level of education, age and residency in the northern (predominantly rural) zone of the territory were independently associated with the index. These results confirm a prior perception that residents of the more rural zone would have a higher fat consumption index value. The results suggest that this index is sufficiently sensitive for community surveillance purposes.
The purpose of this study was to compare the newly released dietary reference intakes with the 1990 Nova Scotia Nutrition Survey and identify characteristics that influence compatibility with these new recommendations. For each of 17 nutrient recommendations, we calculated the proportion of participants who consumed intakes within the recommended range. We constructed a score reflecting overall compatibility between the new recommendations and the Nova Scotia Nutrition Survey data. Using this score as the dependent variable, we conducted multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the importance of demographic and behavioural factors for compatibility with the dietary reference intakes. Results indicate that compatibility with the dietary reference intakes was poor among Nova Scotians, particularly for magnesium, vitamins C and E, and macronutrients. Compatibility was lower among females than among males, and differed independently by age, body mass index, socioeconomic factors, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Dietary intervention is needed in Nova Scotia. Reduced fat intake and increased intake of specific vitamins should be promoted. We recommend that nutrition education campaigns coinciding with the introduction of the dietary reference intakes in Nova Scotia target younger people, those of lower socioeconomic background, smokers, and those who are obese.
A conceptual model was proposed and tested in order to link attitudinal and awareness factors that might explain changes in food purchase behaviours and dietary patterns related to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada's Health Check food information program.
Two hundred food shoppers completed a survey inquiring about demographics, diet-related health conditions, attitude toward healthy food purchases, use of food package information, and awareness, perceived value and reported use of the Health Check logo. Participants provided their receipt for groceries purchased and completed a dietary fat assessment. Path analysis was used to test the model.
Shoppers purchasing a Health Check product had lower fat intakes than shoppers who did not (30.4% vs. 33.9% calories from fat; p