In Canada, the incidence of childhood obesity has tripled within the past 20 years. The prevalence of obesity in the Timmins, Ontario, student population was studied to gain knowledge for program planning and resource allocation, and to compare Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria with Cole's international criteria for childhood obesity.
Anthropometric measurements of 801 students were taken. Students were chosen from randomly selected schools for each grade. Data were analyzed according to age, gender, and ethnicity. Data were also compared with other studies. Intragroup comparisons were performed using hypothesis testing for significance with the z table and chi-square test.
Overweight and obesity prevalence was 28% according to CDC criteria. No statistical difference was found between genders or among ethnic groups, or between this study and other Canadian studies. In comparison with the CDC criteria, Cole's international criteria indicated less obesity and increased overweight prevalence. These differences were not statistically significant.
The findings suggest that in the northern Ontario community of Timmins, the prevalence of childhood obesity is of epidemic proportions. When the findings are shared with different agencies, this study will help the health unit to take necessary public health measures to curb the epidemic.
The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years) in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999).
Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers.
The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6%) and the North region (25.6%). When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status.
Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.
The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of third molars from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Swedish survey.
This cross-sectional study involved the comparison of the only published data on third molar prevalence. The number of visible third molars in the NHANES of 2011 through 2012 were assessed in nonclinical settings by trained, calibrated dental hygienists and reported by age decade (approximately 5,000 patients). Similar data were reported for the Swedish population with data collected in clinical settings (approximately 700 patients). The primary outcome variable was the number of third molars (0 to 4); the predictor variables were age cohorts (20 to 29 through 70 to 79 yr). Outcome data were reported with descriptive statistics.
In the youngest cohort (20 to 29 yr), having no visible third molars was more likely in the US population than in the Swedish population (47 vs 2%, respectively). By 50 to 59 years, outcomes for no third molars were similar in the United States and Sweden (53 and 57%, respectively).
The presence or absence of third molars reported from the US and Swedish populations presented contrasting patterns, particularly in the younger cohorts. More comprehensive and detailed data are required in future surveys as population studies on third molars become more important for clinicians and other stakeholders.
Norwegian Health authorities recommend solid food to be introduced between child age 4-6 months, depending on both the mother´s and infant's needs. The aim of this paper is to describe timing of complementary feeding in a current sample of Norwegian mother/infant-dyads and explore potential associations between timing of introduction to solid foods and a wide range of maternal and infant characteristics known from previous literature to influence early feeding interactions. The paper is based on data from the Norwegian randomized controlled trial Early Food for Future Health. In 2016, a total of 715 mothers completed a web-based questionnaire at child age 5.5 months. We found that 5% of the infants were introduced to solid food before 4 months of age, while 14% were not introduced to solid food at 5.5 months of age. Introduction of solid food before 4 months of age was associated with the infant not being exclusive breastfed the first month, receiving only formula milk at 3 months, the mother being younger, not married/cohabitant, smoking, less educated and having more economic difficulties. Not being introduced to solid food at 5.5 months was associated with the infant being a girl, being exclusive breastfed the first month, receiving only breastmilk at 3 months, the mother being older, married and having 3 or more children. This study shows that there are still clear socioeconomic differences regarding timing of complementary feeding in Norway. Infants of younger, less educated and smoking mothers are at higher risk of not being fed in compliance with the official infant feeding recommendations. Our findings emphasize the importance of targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for support on healthy feeding practices focusing on the infant`s needs to prevent early onset of social inequalities in health.
To determine the association between physical activity and overweight/obesity in Mexican adults.
Cross-sectional design. Adults 20 to 69 years of age were included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). The dependent variable was overweight/obesity and the independent variable was recalled physical activity. Analysis was by logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, residence area, region, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity, smoking, schooling, work activity, alcohol consumption and sitting time.
Data from 15 901 adults were analyzed. The prevalence of overweight/obesity had an inverse association with physical activity among men but not among women.
The practice of physical activity was negatively associated with the prevalence of overweight/obesity only in adult men. These results underscore the importance of promoting physical activity to prevent and control overweight/obesity.
Schoolteachers can affect students' eating habits in several ways: through nutrition knowledge, positive role modeling, and avoidance of unhealthy classroom food practices. In this study, the knowledge, attitudes, and eating behaviors of prospective teachers as determinants of intended classroom food practices and the school environment and its potential impact on classroom food practices were examined and explored.
One hundred and three students (response rate 79%) enrolled in the final year of a bachelor of education program with at least 22 weeks of practice teaching completed a self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at School teaching staff survey. Indexes related to classroom food practices, school food environment, personal health, fat intake, and nutrition knowledge were constructed and explored quantitatively using linear modeling techniques and contingency table analysis.
The majority of respondents reported a high fat intake (65%) and had mid-to-low nutrition knowledge (72%). While most respondents (93%) believed that a healthy school food environment was important, two thirds reported unhealthy classroom food practices. Unhealthy classroom food practices were more likely to be used by those intending to teach at the secondary level, those who held a high personal health belief, and those who demonstrated less support for a healthy school environment.
These findings suggest that knowledge, attitudes, and food behaviors of prospective teachers may be barriers to promoting healthy food habits to their future students. Further, prospective teachers would benefit from policies and programs that support healthy classroom practices and from compulsory nutrition education in the teacher training curriculum.
Current physical activity guidelines imply that, by comparison with moderate physical activity (MPA), the benefits of engaging in vigorous physical activity (VPA) are attributed to the greater energy expenditure dose per unit of time and do not relate to intensity per se. The purpose of this study was to determine whether VPA influences the metabolic syndrome (MetS) independent of its influence on the energy expenditure dose of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).
Participants consisted of 1841 adults from the 2003-06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a representative cross-sectional study. MPA and VPA were measured objectively over 7 days using Actigraph accelerometers. MetS was determined using an established clinical definition. Associations between physical activity and the MetS were determined using logistic regression and controlled for relevant covariates.
Analyses revealed that VPA remained a meaningful predictor of the MetS after controlling for the total energy expenditure dose of MVPA such that the relative odds of the MetS was 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.17-0.46) in the group with the highest VPA compared with the group with no VPA. VPA had a greater influence on the MetS than an equivalent energy expenditure dose of MPA. For instance, between 0 and 500 MET min/week of MPA the adjusted prevalence of the MetS decreased by 15.5%, whereas between 0 and 500 MET min/week of VPA the prevalence decreased by 37.1%.
These cross-sectional findings suggest that VPA per se has an important role in cardiometabolic disease prevention.
Inuvialuit in Arctic Canada are experiencing a nutritional and lifestyle transition, characterized by a declining consumption of traditional foods, increased consumption of non-nutrient-dense store-bought foods (NNDF), and reduced levels of physical activity with a concurrent rise in chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine dietary intake of Inuvialuit adults in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using a culturally specific, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ).
A cross-sectional dietary survey of 213 randomly selected adults (=19 years) was conducted in 3 remote communities in the Northwest Territories. Nonparametric analysis was used to compare mean nutrient intake, dietary inadequacy, and differences in nutrient density among men and women. Data were also analyzed to determine the top food groups contributing to energy and selected nutrients.
With response rates of 65% to 85%, 43 men (mean age 43.2 ± 12.8) and 170 women (mean age 44.7 ± 13.9) completed the QFFQ. Mean daily energy intakes for men were 3478 ± 1474 kcal and for women they were 3299 ± 1653 kcal. For both sexes, protein, carbohydrates, and fat provided approximately 16%, 47%, and 28% of energy intake, respectively. NNDFs were the top contributors to energy (39%), fat (40%), carbohydrate (54%), sugar (74%), and sodium (23%) intake. Total traditional foods from the land, sea, and sky such as polar bear and wild birds contributed 11% of energy and 41% of protein intake. Most participants' daily intakes were below recommended levels for dietary fiber; vitamins A, E, and D; potassium; and magnesium. Mean daily energy, saturated fat, and sodium intakes exceeded recommendations.
We identified nutrient inadequacies and characterized food consumption among Inuvialuit. These data support nutritional interventions that encourage consumption of traditional foods. The cultural and ethnic differences in Canadian Arctic populations require specific tailoring of public health interventions and policy using population specific tools to meet local needs.
A number of studies have pointed to the pressure that housing costs can exert on the resources available for food. The objectives of the present study were to characterise the relationship between the proportion of income absorbed by housing and the adequacy of household food expenditures across the Canadian population and within income quintiles; and to elucidate the impact of receipt of a housing subsidy on adequacy of food expenditures among low-income tenant households.
The 2001 Survey of Household Spending, conducted by Statistics Canada, was a national cross-sectional survey that collected detailed information on expenditures on goods and services. The adequacy of food spending was assessed in relation to the cost of a basic nutritious diet.
The person with primary responsibility for financial maintenance from 15 535 households from all provinces and territories.
As the proportion of income allocated to housing increased, food spending adequacy declined significantly among households in the three lowest income quintiles. After accounting for household income and composition, receipt of a housing subsidy was associated with an improvement in adequacy of food spending among low-income tenant households, but still mean food spending fell below the cost of a basic nutritious diet even among subsidised households.
This study indicates that housing costs compromise the food access of some low-income households and speaks to the need to re-examine policies related to housing affordability and income adequacy.
The prevalence of breakfast-skipping and inadequate breakfast-eating among schoolchildren in Nova Scotia was determined by surveying 2,500 children in Grades 1 to 3 in 25 randomly selected schools. Breakfast-skipping was measured on two occasions using a validated survey instrument administered by videotaped child entertainers. 4.8% of children came to school without eating or drinking anything on the morning of testing. Breakfast omission was significantly related to grade with 6.1% of Grade 1 children skipping breakfast compared with 3.2% in Grade 3. Boys were significantly more likely to skip breakfast than girls but the absolute differences were small. 86% of children consumed a breakfast including two food groups; 56% three food groups. Adequacy of consumption was poorer in lower grades but did not vary by other sociodemographic variables. Breakfast omission in Nova Scotia children attending Grades 1, 2 or 3 does not warrant a provincial public health response.