Season-related diets of 131 breast-feeding women living under conditions of Yakutia (town of Yakutsk, settlement of Maya) have been studied. Actual consumption of the main nutrients and energy has been determined, daily composition of food products has been defined, ethnic and territorial features of the diet structure have been revealed.
Dietary investigations in four central European survey populations carried out in the German Democratic Republic, Poland and Denmark between 1982 and 1984 using different methodologies were analysed in order to assess the possibilities of characterizing the dietary habits of individual survey participants in a comparable fashion. This was done with the view of assessing the feasibility of a pooled cancer cohort study. For this purpose a method has been devised to combine dietary information derived by food frequency questionnaires and quantitative recording methods into a quantitative characterization of individuals' habits. A comparable characterization between different cultural settings could be demonstrated for a selected list of food items. The selection was determined by the food items considered in common in the different food frequency questionnaires and yielding sufficient and comparable variation as well as absolute amounts of intake. This was more clearly found for food items such as 'fruit' which experience a concise role in dietary habits. However, the observed discrepancies of the different dietary methods within the countries, and, most importantly, between the countries, result in distributions of average daily consumption values which are not deemed to be comparable.
To study cross-cultural variations and changes in intake of food groups in elderly Europeans, longitudinal data on food-group intake from Danish (n = 55), Dutch (n = 65), Swiss (n = 79), and Spanish (n = 46) female participants in the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly a Concerted Action (SENECA) were compared. Participants were born between 1913 and 1918. Information on food intake was obtained with use of the same diet-history method at all sites and in both 1988-1989 and 1993. Actual food intake was coded according to the Eurocode system, the applicability of which for European multicenter studies was evaluated in this study. All participants, regardless of site, reported consumption of milk, grain products, and vegetables, and almost all ate meat, fats, and fruit. Fewer women ate eggs, fish, and sugar. The variations between the sites were in the food groups consumed and the types of foods within the groups. Spanish women appeared to have the most healthy food-intake pattern. They also had more changes in their dietary pattern than did women in the other countries. The Eurocode was adequate for describing the actual food intake of elderly women in four European towns. The coding for meat, however, was ambiguous and should be revised.
Daily diets studied in various groups of native and non-native population living in the Far North and East of Russia (Kamchatka, Chukotka, Sakhalin) are shown to be inadequate for the adult capable population. Chemical composition of food provides insufficient supply of vegetable oil, calcium, vitamins, magnesium.
Diets, energy expenditures, physical and mental performance, anthropometric indices, ascorbic acid excretion, and morbidity rates were studied in 7-9-year-old schoolchildren of Monchegorsk, Murmansk Region. The alimentary features found served as the basis for developing sanitary recommendations to optimize diets and to promote children's health.
Results of an epidemiological investigation of a non-organized population of males at the age of 29-52 years in the city of Kiev revealed in 22.4% dyslipoproteinemia. Feeding of the population and its relationship to disorders of the lipid metabolism were evaluated. Dietary recommendations and primary prophylaxis of ischemic heart disease are discussed.
Greek immigrant children (GI) belonging to the second generation of immigrants in Sweden have been compared with Swedish children (S) and Greek children in Greece (G) regarding energy and nutrient intake. Twenty-four-hour recalls were obtained in the homes of the families. The mean energy intake was the same in all three groups and met the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. The energy distribution for protein, carbohydrates and fat was also similar. The fat intake was far above the recommended level in all groups. The GI and the G group had a significantly higher mean daily intake of monounsaturated fatty acids than the S group (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.001, respectively). Children aged four to eight years in the GI group had a significantly higher nutrient density of retinol, vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B6, calcium, iron, magnesium and sucrose compared to the G group, but compared to the S group they had a lower nutrient density of retinol, vitamin D, ascorbic acid, niacin, vitamin B12 and selen. The GI children consumed more milk than the G children but as much as the S children and they had started to use enriched low-fat milk in Sweden. In conclusion, the food quality in the GI group was better than in the G group and much the same as in the S group, and, with few exceptions, it met the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations.