Nutrient and energy intake was studied in 892 pregnant women during III trimester of pregnancy. Daily total protein intake was 65-66 g and animal protein made up 60% of total protein intake. Total fat consumption was 80-81 g, carbohydrates intake was 240-250 g. Total energy intake in Ekaterinburg's and Moscow's pregnant made up 2031 and 1978 kcal respectively. Body mass gain from I to III trimesters have formed about 9 kg or 0.41 kg per week. Body mass index (BMI) averaged 25,1 and 25,7 in Ekaterinburg's and Moscow's pregnant on day of survey. About 2,5% of women had BMI lower than 19,8. The results were compared with data of developed countries and conclusion was made about sufficient energy and macronutrient intakes, but fat intake was moderately high and formed 33-35% of total energy. The usefulness of Russian RDA are discussed for evaluation of results of dietary surveys.
The nutrition on alimentary and power value in the term active duty soldier on the North on norm No 1 (troop ration) approaches to calculated sizes (with the exception of fat deficiency) that allows to support the physical working capacity and the body mass index on high enough level. However insufficient content of vitamins (polyhypovitaminosis) in organisms of most of studied persons was revealed. The dynamics of change of nutrition status in the soldiers on the North during year shows essential dependence on the weather rigidity parameters and the seasonal factor.
OBJECTIVE: Assess longitudinal changes in height, body weight, triceps skinfold thickness and circumferences in elderly Europeans. DESIGN: Longitudinal study including baseline measurements taken in 1988/1989 which were repeated in 1993. SETTING: Baseline and follow-up data were collected in nine European research towns: Hamme/Belgium (H/F), Roskilde/Denmark (R/DK), Haguenau/France (H/F), Romans/France (R/F), Padua/Italy (P/I), Culemborg/the Netherlands (C/NL), Vila Franca de Xira/Portugal (V/P), Betanzos/Spain (B/E), Yverdon/Switzerland (Y/CH). Single 1993 measurements were carried out in 4 towns: Coimbra/Portugal (C/P), Marki/Poland (M/PL), Ballymoney-Limavady-Portstewart/Northern Ireland/UK (BLP/NI/UK), Mansfield/Connecticut/USA (M/CT/USA). SUBJECTS: Using standardized methodologies data were collected from a random stratified sample of elderly men and women born between 1913 and 1918 including a total of 1242 subjects in 1993. RESULTS: At most sites stature had decreased by 1-2cm. Median weight changed by -1.5 kg to -3.5 kg in only three towns. An increase of at least 5 kg of body weight had taken place in 9% of men and 6% of women whereas 16% of both men and women had lost at least 5 kg of their baseline weight. Serial changes in triceps skinfold thickness, arm circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were small. CONCLUSIONS: Height declined with age. Median changes in other anthropometric characteristics of interest were small. These changes resulted from both considerable gains and losses of body weight in a significant proportion of the SENECA populations.
Childhood obesity is a public health concern in Canada. Few published anthropometric data are available to indicate obesity prevalence in Canadian children. Obesity prevalence is reported for school-aged children in 11 London, Ontario, schools.
Data on body weight and height were obtained using standardized procedures. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI)-for-age references and Cole's international BMI reference were used to classify the children's weight categories.
The study included 1,570 pupils aged six to 13. The CDC BMI references categorized 16.6% and 11.8% of children as overweight and obese, respectively. In comparison, when the Cole BMI reference and cut-off points were used, 17.5% and 7.6% of children were classified as overweight and obese, respectively.
Overweight is prevalent in the study population. Public health interventions are warranted to curb the obesity epidemic in school-aged children.
The dietary trends of indigenous Fijians have changed drastically in the past 50 years. Deviating from the traditional food consumption pattern and traditional lifestyle may have increased the incidence and prevalence of non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study is to examine the dietary trends of the indigenous Fijians in relation to the prevalence of diabetes from 1952 to 1994. The data used were obtained from the Naduri Nutrition Survey reports of 1952 to 1994, the Fiji National Nutrition Survey reports of 1983 and 1993, and the two diabetes survey reports of 1965 and 1980. Results indicated an increased consumption of introduced foods, which may be associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes. The total energy derived from cereals and sugar increased dramatically with a reduction in consumption of traditional foods. The prevalence of diabetes among the urban indigenous population in 1965 was very low compared to the 1980 figure, while the National Nutrition Survey of the same ethnic group showed a 433% increase of urban diabetes from 1965 to 1993. The hospital diabetes admission cases of 1952 to 1982 also showed an increased trend.
The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in Canada is a significant health concern. Unfortunately, we know very little about the actual weight status and associated health risks in our population since most surveys use only self-reported body weights and heights and typically do not include a measure of body fat distribution. This paper summarizes the findings of the Prince Edward Island Nutrition Survey.
A random sample of 1,995 adults aged 18-74 were interviewed in their homes and weights, heights and waist circumference measurements were obtained. Relative health risks, population proportions and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Overall, almost one third of PEI adults are obese (BMI > or = 30). This is almost double that reported in the 1995 National Population Health Survey using self-reported heights and weights. More women were classified as being very severely obese (Class III) than men, but for both men and women there appears to be a trend of increased mild obesity with age. Based on BMI and waist circumference, over one third of the population is considered to be at high to extremely high risk for health problems.
Self-reported height and weight data appear to result in significant underestimation of the problem of obesity. Given the serious health consequences associated with this condition, it is critical that measured heights and weights be collected in future population-based surveys to ensure that public health interventions are based on accurate prevalence data.
Comment In: Can J Public Health. 2004 May-Jun;95(3):165-815191115
OBJECTIVES: To identify dietary patterns and to investigate their association with selected life-style and demographic factors, ethnicity and self-perceived health. Study design. Population-based cross-sectional design, using food frequency questionnaires. METHODS: A total of 12,811 subjects aged 36-79 years participated from the municipalities in Norway where more than 5-10% of the population reported to be Simi in the 1970 Census, in addition to some selected districts. The data were collected during 2003-2004. A principal component analysis was used to assess the associations among food variables. Seven principal components were then used as input in a cluster analysis. RESULTS: Five dietary patterns were identified and labelled "reindeer", "fish", "average", "fruits and vegetables" and "Westernised, traditional marine". The reindeer pattern was highly represented by subjects with three generations of Sámi language (Sámi I), obese subjects and those with low levels of physical activity. The fish pattern was dominated by women and had the largest proportion of individuals who reported their health as being "not so good" (35%). However, this pattern had the largest proportion of subjects in the oldest age categories. The fruits and vegetables pattern was characterised by a health-conscious life-style, included more women than men, and had the largest proportion of subjects reporting "very good" health. Ethnicity did not play a major role in predicting dietary patterns except for the reindeer pattern, especially in the inland areas. CONCLUSIONS: In the dietary cluster analysis we identified five distinct dietary patterns that were also characterised by additional life-style factors.
Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance.
In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia, Canada, and their parents were surveyed as part of the Children's Lifestyle and School-performance Study. Information on dietary intake, height, and weight and sociodemographic variables were linked to results of a provincial standardized literacy assessment. Diet Quality Index-International was used to summarize overall diet quality. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between indicators of diet quality and academic performance while adjusting for gender and socioeconomic characteristics of parents and residential neighborhoods.
Across various indicators of diet quality, an association with academic performance was observed. Students with decreased overall diet quality were significantly more likely to perform poorly on the assessment. Girls performed better than boys as did children from socioeconomically advantaged families. Children attending better schools and living in wealthy neighborhoods also performed better.
These findings demonstrate an association between diet quality and academic performance and identify specific dietary factors that contribute to this association. Additionally, this research supports the broader implementation and investment in effective school nutrition programs that have the potential to improve student access to healthy food choices, diet quality, academic performance, and, over the long term, health.
During March and April 1992, CARE International, with epidemiological support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted household surveys of pensioners 70 years of age or older in two Russian cities. The objectives of these studies were to assess survey feasibility, to report baseline nutritional data, and to determine if demographic identifiers on computerized government listings could be used to target nutritional aid toward the most needy among elderly people. Pensioners in each city were administered questionnaires regarding food consumption and financial and health status. We calculated scores for body mass index (BMI) and Nutritional Screening Initiative (NSI) Checklist (a tool for assessing the nutritional risk status of U.S. elderly). Median pension income was 410 roubles (about $4.00) per month. Forty-five percent of the participants had
Anthropometric-based classification schemes for excess adiposity do not include direct assessment of obesity-related comorbidity and functional status and thus have limited clinical utility. We examined the ability of the Edmonton obesity staging system, a 5-point ordinal classification system that considers comorbidity and functional status, in predicting mortality in a nationally representative US sample.
We analyzed data from the National Health and Human Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) III (1988-1994) and the NHANES 1999-2004, with mortality follow-up through to the end of 2006. Adults (age = 20 yr) with overweight or obesity who had been randomized to the morning session at the mobile examination centre were scored according to the Edmonton obesity staging system. We examined the relationship between staging system scores and mortality, and Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for the presence of the metabolic syndrome or hypertriglyceridemic waist.
Over 75% of the cohort with overweight or obesity were given scores of 1 or 2. Scores of 4 could not be reliably assigned because specific data elements were lacking. Survival curves clearly diverged when stratified by scores of 0-3, but not when stratified by obesity class alone. Within the data from the NHANES 1988-1994, scores of 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16 to 2.13) and 3 (HR 2.69; 95% CI 1.98 to 3.67) were associated with increased mortality compared with scores of 0 or 1, even after adjustment for body mass index and the metabolic syndrome. We found similar results after adjusting for hypertriglyceridemic waist (i.e., waist circumference = 90 cm and a triglyceride level = 2 mmol/L for men; the corresponding values for women were = 85 cm and = 1.5 mmol/L), as well as in a cohort eligible for bariatric surgery.
The Edmonton obesity staging system independently predicted increased mortality even after adjustment for contemporary methods of classifying adiposity. The Edmonton obesity staging system may offer improved clinical utility in assessing obesity-related risk and prioritizing treatment.
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