Out of a total of 158 pregnant women, 55 accepted participation in a dietary investigation for seven days with the object of assessing the consumption of milk by pregnant women and the significance of this for the intake of energy-providing dietary constituents and certain minerals. The diet in pregnant women contained more fat (43.2%) and the relationship between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (P/S-relationship) (0.25) was less than that recommended. The daily dietary content of fibre of 20.7 g/day was lower than the recommended intake. Calcium, phosphate and magnesium intakes constituted 180%, 131% and 64% respectively, of the recommended daily intake. The average intake of milk (buttermilk, skim milk, low fat milk and whole milk) was 482 g/day. The calcium content of the milk constituted, on an average, one third of the total calcium intake. The content of fat and saturated fatty acids in the milk constituted 7% and 10%, respectively, of the total intake. Four of the pregnant women had a daily calcium consumption of less than the recommended intake (1,000 mg/day). The same women had the lowest consumption of milk and energy in the group investigated. The results suggest that the dietary consumption is adequate to cover the calcium requirements. Extra calcium supplements should only be recommended for pregnant women with limited consumption of milk and other milk products. Pregnant women should be advised to take increased quantities of magnesium and to reduce the fat intake.
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Widespread poor vitamin D status in all age and gender groups in the United States (USA) and Canada increases the need for new food sources. Currently ~60% of the intake of vitamin D from foods is from fortified foods in these countries. Those groups in greatest need are consuming significantly lower amounts of commonly fortified foods such as milk. Both countries allow voluntary vitamin D fortification of some other foods, although in Canada this practice is only done on a case-by-case basis. Novel approaches to vitamin D fortification of food in both countries now include "bio-addition" in which food staples are fortified through the addition of another vitamin D-rich food to animal feed during production, or manipulation of food post-harvest or pre-processing. These bio-addition approaches provide a wider range of foods containing vitamin D, and thus appeal to differing preferences, cultures and possibly economic status. An example is the post-harvest exposure of edible mushrooms to ultraviolet light. However, further research into safety and efficacy of bio-addition needs to be established in different target populations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.
The association between the frequency of meat and fish intake and the incidence rate of breast cancer has been analyzed in 152 incident cases that developed among 14,500 Norwegian women during 11 to 14 years of follow-up. At the time of dietary inquiry they were between 35 and 51 years of age. A positive association was observed between the frequency of overall meat intake and breast cancer risk. There was an age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.8 (95% confidence limits, 1.1 and 3.1) for women who had a main meal with meat 5 times or more per week compared to women who had 2 meat dinners or less per week, and this association displayed a linear trend (chi 2 trend = 4.30, p = 0.04). No association was detected between the overall frequency of fish for dinner and breast cancer risk (chi 2 trend = 1.39, p = 0.24), but there was an inverse relation with the frequency of main meals containing fish in poached form. The age-adjusted IRR was 0.7 (95% confidence limits, 0.4 and 1.0) for women who had poached fish for dinner at least 5 times per month compared to women who had fish in this form twice monthly or less often (chi 2 trend = 3.56, p = 0.06). The positive association with meat may be in accordance with the hypothesis that dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer. Although there was no association with overall fish intake, the inverse relation with poached fish might deserve further investigation.
OBJECTIVES: Chronic non-communicable diseases related to excessive or unbalanced dietary intakes are on the rise among some Indigenous populations in Canada. Nutritional problems of Indigenous peoples arise in the transition from a traditional diet to a market diet characterized by highly processed foods with reduced nutrient density. This study aimed at assessing traditional food intake of Indigenous people in 18 communities. STUDY DESIGN: This study was cross-sectional with a sample size of 1,356. METHODS: This study used food frequency and 24-hour recall questionnaires to quantify traditional food intake in 18 communities in the McKenzie basin of the Northwest Territories (Denendeh and the Yukon). RESULTS: Typical daily intakes of groups of traditional food items were generated and intake of an extensive list of traditional food detailed for adult men and women. Per capita intake of traditional food items was also calculated. CONCLUSION: Reliance on traditional food intake is still high in Denendeh, as well as in the Yukon. The detailed description of the traditional food system presented here allows an accurate identification of the contribution of traditional food items to nutrient and contaminant intake by Indigenous people for future studies.
Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids is inversely related to adverse health outcomes; however, these relationships may be confounded by socio-economic status and health behaviours. This study's purpose was to describe the socio-demographic, health and lifestyle correlates of fish consumption among pregnant women.
Pregnant women (n=2394) completed a telephone interview between 10-22 weeks' gestation (London, Ontario, 2002-5) containing questions on socio-demographic, health and lifestyle variables; dietary intake was measured using a 106-item validated food-frequency questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios were obtained using a modified Poisson regression model.