In a group of 528 men, 30-54 years old, answers to various questions about dietary habits given in a questionnaire were compared to corresponding information given in a dietary history interview two years later. High concordance was found between the two methods for questions concerning types of foods most commonly used. For most food items, the mean intake according to the dietary recall corresponds well with intake reported in the questionnaire. For food items used every day in easily recorded units (slices of bread, cups of coffee, glasses of milk), the frequency questionnaire can be used to rank individuals according to consumption. For other food items, the concordance is less satisfactory.
Three methods of estimating group and individual dietary consumption have been developed and assessed in a case-control study of diet and breast cancer. The methods comprised a 24-hour recall, a detailed quantitative diet history directed to the most recent two-month period and the two-month period six months before, and a four-day diet diary. There is a high degree of correlation between the estimates of food consumption for the controls using each of the methods. The highest estimate was obtained from the diet history, with a slightly higher estimate in the period six months before than the current period, while the lowest is found in the 24-hour recall. The latter corresponds with the same method in a Nutrition Canada Survey. It is concluded that all methods ara applicable to case-control studies, but the diet history is preferred when current food intake may be influenced by a disease.
The reproducibility of a self-administered questionnaire about dietary habits was assessed by comparing answers from 201 men and women to identical questions posed in two surveys separated by approximately one year. In spite of possible changes in the diet in the time period between the two surveys, the concordance between the information was high, both concerning type of food item most commonly eaten and the frequency with which the food items were consumed. The highest reproducibility was found for food items consumed habitually (e.g. alcohol) or often (e.g. coffee). The results are in accordance with most other similar studies, and support the use of self-administered questionnaires in nutritional epidemiology.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVITIES: The aims were to test internal consistency and interrater reliability of Mini Nutritional Assessment during implementation of Mini Nutritional Assessment in community residential homes and to test sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic predictivity of Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form vs. Mini Nutritional Assessment. BACKGROUND: There is a need in clinical practice to assess nutritional status in older people and to identify those who could benefit from early intervention. METHODS: The two-step Mini Nutritional Assessment procedure (Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form and Mini Nutritional Assessment) was used in 127 older people admitted to eight residential homes. In three of those homes (A, B and C), registered nurses simultaneously performed the assessment procedure, after receiving education and training. The intention was to offer the registered nurses a tool for independent practice use. RESULTS: Internal consistency was 0.68 (Cronbach's alpha) (n = 127). In residential home A, B and C, the registered nurses carried out Mini Nutritional Assessment in 45 residents out of 68. The agreement level between the author's and the registered nurses' assessments was 62% (kappa 0.41). In residential home A, B and C, the agreement level was 89%, 89% and 44%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic predictivity of Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form vs. Mini Nutritional Assessment were 89%, 82% and 92%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The two-step Mini Nutritional Assessment procedure seems to be a useful tool to identify residents in need of nutritional interventions, despite the registered nurses not carrying out Mini Nutritional Assessment in all residents and the low agreement in residential home C. It indicates that to implement and use Mini Nutritional Assessment in nursing care demands the creating necessary staff resources, such as adequate staffing, sufficient education and continual supervision. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Because of the high sensitivity of Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form and Mini Nutritional Assessment, Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form alone might be sufficient for practice use, as its simplicity might increase its usefulness.
It has been previously suggested that chronic care elderly patients are at increased nutritional risk. However dietary intake studies have not completely supported this statement. To determine usual dietary intakes, 32 elderly patients, mean (+/- SEM) age 84 +/- 1 years, from two hospitals, had 3-day dietary intakes estimated or weighed and analyzed for nutrient composition. The group as a whole had low intakes of dietary fibre but intakes of other nutrients were equal to or greater than the Canadian recommendations. The distribution of macronutrients also met recommended guidelines. In general, this group of elderly patients appeared to be eating well, however, some individuals results suggest nutritional risk.
A dietary survey concerning 1348 persons aged 25-64 was carried out in connection with the first FINMONICA risk factor survey in the three monitoring areas, North Karelia and Kuopio in the east, and Turku-Loimaa in the south-west in 1982. Three-day food records were used in the dietary assessment. The fat content of the diet in men was 38-39% of energy in all areas, whereas in women it was about 36% in the east compared to 38% in the south-west. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat of the diet was lower in the east than in the south-west in both sexes (0.25 vs. 0.31). This seemed to be the result of higher milk and butter consumption in the east. The regional differences in the quality of dietary fats seemed to be the result of both different occupational structures and different dietary habits within each occupational group, especially among women.