3-,9- and 15-year-old children were studied in autumn in order to evaluate their serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) concentration and their vitamin D intake. The 25-OH-D was significantly lower in the 15-year-old than in the other children, but it was satisfactory in all groups as compared to the 25-OH-D of healthy, young adults. The mean dietary vitamin D intake as well as the mean total vitamin D intake including supplements was low in all groups of children. With a vitamin D intake as low as in this study, every house-bound child would be at risk of vitamin D deficiency.
Department of Population Health Research, Alberta Health Services—Cancer Care, c/o Holy Cross Site, Box ACB, 2210 2nd Street SW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2S 3C3. firstname.lastname@example.org
Dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis are commonly reported with little information describing how decisions are made at each step of the analytical process. Using food frequency questionnaire data obtained in 2001-2007 on Albertan men (n = 6,445) and women (n = 10,299) aged 35-69 years, the authors explored the use of statistical approaches to diminish the subjectivity inherent in cluster analysis. Reproducibility of cluster solutions, defined as agreement between 2 cluster assignments, by 3 clustering methods (Ward's minimum variance, flexible beta, K means) was evaluated. Ratios of between- versus within-cluster variances were examined, and health-related variables across clusters in the final solution were described. K means produced cluster solutions with the highest reproducibility. For men, 4 clusters were chosen on the basis of ratios of between- versus within-cluster variances, but for women, 3 clusters were chosen on the basis of interpretability of cluster labels and descriptive statistics. In comparison with those in other clusters, men and women in the "healthy" clusters by greater proportions reported normal body mass index, smaller waist circumference, and lower energy intakes. The authors' approach appeared helpful when choosing the clustering method for both sexes and the optimal number of clusters for men, but additional analyses are required to understand why it performed differently for women.
The purpose of this study was to quantify nutritional risk in a convenience sample of vulnerable, community-living seniors, and to determine patterns of nutritional risk in these seniors. The sample consisted of 367 seniors who provided health, functional, and nutritional risk information during an interview in which the Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition questionnaire was used. The majority (73.6%) of the sample was female, and the mean age was 79 years. Nutritional risk was identified in 68.7% of the sample, with 44.4% being at high nutritional risk. Common nutritional risk factors were weight change, restricting food, low fruit and vegetable intake, difficulty with chewing, cooking, or shopping, and poor appetite. Principal components analysis identified four independent components within the Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition questionnaire; these components can be described as low food intake, poor appetite, physical and external challenges, and instrumental activity challenges. Data are sparse on nutritional risk in community-living Canadian seniors; despite methodologic limitations in the recruitment process, this study provides some indication of the level of nutrition problems. The patterns of nutritional risk identified in this vulnerable population may help providers identify useful strategies for ameliorating risk. The Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition questionnaire could be used to identify risk and patterns of risk in Canadian seniors, so that treatment could be individualized.
Results of an epidemiological investigation of a non-organized population of males at the age of 29-52 years in the city of Kiev revealed in 22.4% dyslipoproteinemia. Feeding of the population and its relationship to disorders of the lipid metabolism were evaluated. Dietary recommendations and primary prophylaxis of ischemic heart disease are discussed.
Diets, energy expenditures, physical and mental performance, anthropometric indices, ascorbic acid excretion, and morbidity rates were studied in 7-9-year-old schoolchildren of Monchegorsk, Murmansk Region. The alimentary features found served as the basis for developing sanitary recommendations to optimize diets and to promote children's health.
This study aims to measure the difficulty of healthy eating as a single latent construct and, within that, assess which dietary guidelines consumers find more or less difficult to comply with using the Rasch model approach. Participants self-reported their compliance with 12 health-promoting dietary recommendations related to cooking methods and consumption of specific food items. Data were drawn from a survey elicited using a longitudinal consumer panel established in the City of Guelph, Ontario, Canada in 2008. The panel consists of 1962 randomly-selected residents of Guelph between the age of 20 and 69 years. The response rate was equal to 68 percent. The main assumptions of the Rasch model were satisfied. However, subsequent differential item functioning analysis revealed significant scale variations by gender, education, age and household income, which reduced the validity of the Rasch scale. Conversely, these scale variations highlight the importance of socio-economic and demographic factors on the difficulty of healthy eating.