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Dietary intakes of Canadians in the 1990s using population-weighted data derived from the provincial nutrition surveys.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165715
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Dec;31(6):753-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Jadwiga H Dolega-Cieszkowski
Joan P Bobyn
Susan J Whiting
Author Affiliation
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, 110 Science Place, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C9, Canada.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Dec;31(6):753-8
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada
Energy intake
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Status
Abstract
Provincial nutrition surveys of adults were conducted between 1990 and 1999 in Canada. Eight reports have been issued, and one is forthcoming. The purpose of this study was to estimate the national dietary intake of adult Canadians, using the publicly available data. Group mean-nutrient-intake data from 16 915 adults, aged 18 to 84 years, from published provincial reports were collated by age and sex for each of 9 provinces (Manitoba data were unavailable). Using Canadian census data appropriate to the year of collection, intake data were weighted to provide 1 national intake value for each nutrient, by 8 age and sex categories. In general, the energy and nutrient intake of adults decreased with age. For every age group, with the exception of vitamin C, intake of nutrients by men was greater than that by women. On the basis of a comparison of recently recommended intakes (Dietary Reference Intakes), the nutrients that are of concern because of inadequate intake include dietary fibre, calcium, magnesium, and folate. The data demonstrate the impact of folate fortification on folate intake; the mean intake became twice that of prefortification levels. This study used group mean-intake data; therefore, we cannot make definitive conclusions about the prevalence of inadequacy for the nutrients. Because of limitations with some provincial response rates, our data should not be construed as representative of the Canadian population. However, because these surveys were completed between the 19701972 Nutrition Canada Survey and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, these population-weighted data might be a useful point of comparison for monitoring trends in nutrient intake from food.
PubMed ID
17213891 View in PubMed
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Despite mandatory fortification of staple foods, vitamin D intakes of Canadian children and adults are inadequate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144163
Source
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul;121(1-2):301-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Hassanali Vatanparast
Mona S Calvo
Timothy J Green
Susan J Whiting
Author Affiliation
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5C9. vatan.h@usask.ca
Source
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul;121(1-2):301-3
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet Surveys
Female
Food, Fortified
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements
Vitamin D - metabolism
Abstract
Vitamin D is largely obtained through sun-induced skin synthesis and less from dietary sources, but during Canadian winters, skin synthesis is non-existent. The objective of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes in Canadians from food sources. Data used in this study included food intakes of Canadians reported in the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (CCHS 2.2), a nationally representative sample of 34,789 persons over the age of 1 year. The mean+/-SD dietary intake of vitamin D from food of Canadians was 5.8+/-0.1 microg/day, with males 9-18 years having the highest mean intakes (7.5+/-0.2 microg/day) and females 51-70 years having the lowest intakes (5.2+/-0.3 microg/day). Males in all age groups had higher intakes than females and White Canadians had higher vitamin D intakes than Non-Whites in most age sex groups. Milk products contributed 49% of dietary vitamin D followed by meat and meat-alternatives (31.1%). The majority of Canadians consume less than current recommended intake of vitamin D from food. Consideration should be given to strategies to improve vitamin D intake of Canadians by increasing both the amount of vitamin D added to foods and range of foods eligible for fortification.
PubMed ID
20399268 View in PubMed
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Survey of current vitamin D food fortification practices in the United States and Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119420
Source
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Jul;136:211-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Mona S Calvo
Susan J Whiting
Author Affiliation
Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, 8301 Muirkirk Road, Laurel, MD 20708, USA. mona.calvo@fda.hhs.gov
Source
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Jul;136:211-3
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Food, Fortified
Humans
Legislation, Food - trends
Male
Nutrition Surveys
Prevalence
United States - epidemiology
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Vitamin D Deficiency - epidemiology
Abstract
Widespread poor vitamin D status in all age and gender groups in the United States (USA) and Canada increases the need for new food sources. Currently ~60% of the intake of vitamin D from foods is from fortified foods in these countries. Those groups in greatest need are consuming significantly lower amounts of commonly fortified foods such as milk. Both countries allow voluntary vitamin D fortification of some other foods, although in Canada this practice is only done on a case-by-case basis. Novel approaches to vitamin D fortification of food in both countries now include "bio-addition" in which food staples are fortified through the addition of another vitamin D-rich food to animal feed during production, or manipulation of food post-harvest or pre-processing. These bio-addition approaches provide a wider range of foods containing vitamin D, and thus appeal to differing preferences, cultures and possibly economic status. An example is the post-harvest exposure of edible mushrooms to ultraviolet light. However, further research into safety and efficacy of bio-addition needs to be established in different target populations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.
PubMed ID
23104118 View in PubMed
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Protein content of puréed diets: implications for planning.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163147
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2007;68(2):99-102
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Wendy J Dahl
Susan J Whiting
Robert T Tyler
Author Affiliation
Saskatoon Helath Region, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2007;68(2):99-102
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Diet - standards
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage - analysis
Energy intake
Food Services
Homes for the Aged
Humans
Menu Planning
Nursing Homes
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements
Nutritive Value
Ontario
Saskatchewan
Abstract
Texture-modified diets offered in long-term care (LTC) facilities are often prepared from the regular menu, planned using Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating. The appropriateness of protein levels of puréed diets in LTC facilities was determined.
Protein content was measured in 29 duplicate diets, collected from 20 urban LTC facilities in Saskatchewan (SK) and Ontario (ON). Mealtime puréed food intakes of 20 LTC residents were assessed. The target protein levels were calculated as estimated average requirements plus one or two standard deviations of intake, thus allowing for moderate (16%) or low (2.5%) risk of inadequacy, respectively.
The duplicate diets provided 57.9 +/- 7.9 and 85.4 +/- 31.1 g/day of protein in SK and ON, respectively. Protein intake of SK LTC residents consuming puréed food averaged 54 +/- 19 g/day. Only 43% of the SK puréed diets provided more than 59 g/day of protein and none provided more than 78 g/day; in contrast, 87% and 40% of ON puréed diets provided more than 59 and 78 g/day of protein, respectively.
In-house prepared puréed diets do not consistently provide sufficient protein levels to ensure a low risk of inadequacy for the LTC residents consuming these diets.
PubMed ID
17553196 View in PubMed
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Many adult Canadians are not meeting current calcium recommendations from food and supplement intake.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151509
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009 Apr;34(2):191-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
Hassanali Vatanparast
Jadwiga H Dolega-Cieszkowski
Susan J Whiting
Author Affiliation
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N5C9, Canada.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009 Apr;34(2):191-6
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Canada
Dietary Supplements
Female
Food Habits
Food, Fortified
Guideline Adherence
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Status
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine trends in calcium intake from foods of Canadian adults from 1970-1972 to 2004. We compiled the calcium intake of adults (aged >or=19 years) from foods from Nutrition Canada (1970-1972; n = 7036); 9 provincial nutrition surveys (1990-1999; n = 16 915); and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 (n = 20 197). Where possible, we used published confidence intervals to test for significant differences in calcium intake. In 2004, the mean calcium intake of Canadians was below Dietary Reference Intake recommendations for most adults, with the greatest difference in older adults (>or=51 years), in part because the recommended calcium intake for this group is higher (1200 mg) than that for younger adults (1,000 mg). The calcium intake of males in every age category was greater than that of females. Calcium intake increased from 1970 to 2004, yet, despite the introduction of calcium-fortified beverages to the market in the late 1990s, increases in calcium intake between 1970 and 2004 were modest. Calcium intakes in provinces were mostly similar in the 1990s and in 2004, except for women in Newfoundland and Labrador, who consumed less, especially in the 1990s, and for young men in 2004 in Prince Edward Island, who consumed more. When supplemental calcium intake was added, mean intakes remained below recommended levels, except for males 19-30 years, but the prevalence of adequacy increased in all age groups, notably for women over 50 years. The calcium intake of Canadian adults remains in need of improvement, despite fortification and supplement use.
PubMed ID
19370049 View in PubMed
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Vitamin D fortification in the United States and Canada: current status and data needs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177054
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6 Suppl):1710S-6S
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Mona S Calvo
Susan J Whiting
Curtis N Barton
Author Affiliation
Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, MD 20910, USA. mona.calvo@cfsan.fda.gov
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6 Suppl):1710S-6S
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Canada
Child
Diet
Female
Food Labeling
Food, Fortified
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements
Safety
Sex Factors
Sunlight
Treatment Outcome
United States
Vitamin D - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Vitamin D Deficiency - prevention & control
Abstract
Most circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D originates from exposure to sunlight; nevertheless, many factors can impair this process, necessitating periodic reliance on dietary sources to maintain adequate serum concentrations. The US and Canadian populations are largely dependent on fortified foods and dietary supplements to meet these needs, because foods naturally rich in vitamin D are limited. Fluid milk and breakfast cereals are the predominant vehicles for vitamin D in the United States, whereas Canada fortifies fluid milk and margarine. Reports of a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its association with increased risks of chronic diseases have raised concerns regarding the adequacy of current intake levels and the safest and most effective way to increase vitamin D intake in the general population and in vulnerable groups. The usual daily intakes of vitamin D from food alone and from food and supplements combined, as estimated from the US third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, show median values above the adequate intake of 5 microg/d for children 6-11 y of age; however, median intakes are generally below the adequate intake for female subjects > 12 y of age and men > 50 y. In Canada, there are no national survey data for estimation of intake. Cross-sectional studies suggest that current US/Canadian fortification practices are not effective in preventing hypovitaminosis D, particularly among vulnerable populations during the winter, whereas supplement use shows more promise. Recent prospective intervention studies with higher vitamin D concentrations provided evidence of safety and efficacy for fortification of specific foods and use of supplements.
PubMed ID
15585792 View in PubMed
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Beverage patterns among Canadian children and relationship to overweight and obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123475
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Oct;37(5):900-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Adrienne D Danyliw
Hassanali Vatanparast
Nooshin Nikpartow
Susan J Whiting
Author Affiliation
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Oct;37(5):900-6
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Beverages - adverse effects
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child Behavior
Child Development
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dietary Sucrose - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Nutrition Surveys
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Overweight - epidemiology - etiology
Risk
Sex Characteristics
Abstract
Sweetened beverage intake has risen in past decades, along with a rise in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Our objective was to examine the relationship between beverage intake patterns and overweight and obesity among Canadian children. Beverage intake patterns were identified by cluster analysis of data from the cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Intake data were obtained from a single 24-hour recall, height and weight were measured, and sociodemographic data were obtained via interview. Data on children and adolescents aged 2-18 years who met inclusion criteria (n = 10?038) were grouped into the following categories: 2-5 years (male and female), 6-11 years (female), 6-11 years (male), 12-18 years (female), and 12-18 years (male). ?² test was used to compare rates of overweight and obesity across clusters. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between overweight and obesity and beverage intake patterns, adjusting for potential confounders. Clustering resulted in distinct groups of who drank mostly fruit drinks, soft drinks, 100% juice, milk, high-fat milk, or low-volume and varied beverages (termed "moderate"). Boys aged 6-11 years whose beverage pattern was characterized by soft drink intake (553 ± 29 g) had increased odds of overweight-obesity (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.1) compared with a "moderate" beverage pattern (23 ± 4 g soft drink). No significant relationship emerged between beverage pattern and overweight and obesity among other age-sex groups. Using national cross-sectional dietary intake data, Canadian children do not show a beverage-weight association except among young boys who drink mostly soft drinks, and thus may be at increased risk for overweight or obesity.
PubMed ID
22694268 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.