Nutrient and energy intake was studied in 892 pregnant women during III trimester of pregnancy. Daily total protein intake was 65-66 g and animal protein made up 60% of total protein intake. Total fat consumption was 80-81 g, carbohydrates intake was 240-250 g. Total energy intake in Ekaterinburg's and Moscow's pregnant made up 2031 and 1978 kcal respectively. Body mass gain from I to III trimesters have formed about 9 kg or 0.41 kg per week. Body mass index (BMI) averaged 25,1 and 25,7 in Ekaterinburg's and Moscow's pregnant on day of survey. About 2,5% of women had BMI lower than 19,8. The results were compared with data of developed countries and conclusion was made about sufficient energy and macronutrient intakes, but fat intake was moderately high and formed 33-35% of total energy. The usefulness of Russian RDA are discussed for evaluation of results of dietary surveys.
Annual surveys of the food intakes and nutritional status of schoolchildren (aged 10 and 15 y) in a Moscow district were conducted in 1992-1995, a period of rapid economic transformation in Russia. Food intake was assessed through use of two 24-h recalls. A few socioeconomic variables-parental educational level, family size, participation in organized sports, and use of school breakfast and lunch options-were included in the dietary interview. Nutritional status was assessed by measurement of height and weight and comparison with international standards. There was a slight difference in the food pattern in the two age groups and some differences between boys and girls. Milk and other dairy products, fruit, juices, and vegetables were consumed in small quantities and relatively infrequently. Bread and bread products, porridge, confectionery, and meat and meat products were consumed more frequently and in larger quantities. Protein contributed approximately 12% and fat 29-32% of dietary energy. About 70% of the subjects had low intakes of riboflavin and calcium compared with reference values. Mean nutrient intakes did not change significantly during the study period. During the first 3 y of the study period, there was a nonsignificant overall decrease in height and weight but this was within the limits of normal variation.
A study was conducted to determine the nutritional status of the free-living elderly population in Vancouver. The response rate of the sample was low. Dietary information from 104 single men and women and 23 couples was collected by the 24-hour recall method. Biochemical tests in 56 single individuals and 13 couples included measurement of hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit, plasma analysis for concentrations of total protein, iron, carotene, vitamin A, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and cholesterol and for transferrin saturation, and urine analysis for concentrations of creatinine, thiamin, riboflavin and N(1)-methylnicotinamide.Mean energy intakes were considerably below the Dietary Standard for Canada. However, mean intakes of individual nutrients were similar to or in excess of the Dietary Standard for Canada for single men and women and for married men. Married women had low average intakes of calcium, iron, thiamin and riboflavin but adequate intakes of other nutrients. Mean values for biochemical variables were within the accepted range as defined by the Interdepartmental Committee of Nutrition for National Defense in the United States. According to the Nutrition Canada definitions of "high risk" there were no individuals in high-risk categories for any biochemical variable except plasma cholesterol concentration and transferrin saturation. The dietary and biochemical data indicated that the nutritional status in this select group of elderly persons was good except for intake of total energy and, in married women, of calcium, iron, thiamin and riboflavin.
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[Monitoring food consumption and nutritional status of Moscow schoolchildren in 1992-1994. 2. Anthropometric evaluation of nutritional status, effect of social factors on the character and status of nutrition].
In this part of the study the nutritional status of Moscow's schoolchildren was assessed by height and weight. The anthropometric data were compared with the CDC/WHO international growth references standards by ANTHRO version 1.01 software. The prevalence of low weight-for-age (Z-score
[Development of a method of studying actual nutrition according to analysis of the frequency of consumption of food products: creation of a questionnaire and general evaluation of the reliability of the method].
The method of actual feeding evaluation on frequency of food-stuffs consumption was developed. The method of 24-hour reproduction of a feed and the method of consumed food registration in a diary by testing person himself. The main results of study testified to reliability of data, received by a developed method.
We studied the actual consumption of specific food groups of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and analyzed the nutritional risk factors for OA in case-control study. Level of consumption of all types of dairy products was significantly lower in the group of patients with OA compared with controls. The relative risk of developing OA in the consumption of less than 573 g (median) of dairy products in terms of milk increases by 5-6 times.