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Despite mandatory fortification of staple foods, vitamin D intakes of Canadian children and adults are inadequate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144163
Source
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul;121(1-2):301-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Hassanali Vatanparast
Mona S Calvo
Timothy J Green
Susan J Whiting
Author Affiliation
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5C9. vatan.h@usask.ca
Source
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul;121(1-2):301-3
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet Surveys
Female
Food, Fortified
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements
Vitamin D - metabolism
Abstract
Vitamin D is largely obtained through sun-induced skin synthesis and less from dietary sources, but during Canadian winters, skin synthesis is non-existent. The objective of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes in Canadians from food sources. Data used in this study included food intakes of Canadians reported in the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (CCHS 2.2), a nationally representative sample of 34,789 persons over the age of 1 year. The mean+/-SD dietary intake of vitamin D from food of Canadians was 5.8+/-0.1 microg/day, with males 9-18 years having the highest mean intakes (7.5+/-0.2 microg/day) and females 51-70 years having the lowest intakes (5.2+/-0.3 microg/day). Males in all age groups had higher intakes than females and White Canadians had higher vitamin D intakes than Non-Whites in most age sex groups. Milk products contributed 49% of dietary vitamin D followed by meat and meat-alternatives (31.1%). The majority of Canadians consume less than current recommended intake of vitamin D from food. Consideration should be given to strategies to improve vitamin D intake of Canadians by increasing both the amount of vitamin D added to foods and range of foods eligible for fortification.
PubMed ID
20399268 View in PubMed
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Many adult Canadians are not meeting current calcium recommendations from food and supplement intake.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151509
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009 Apr;34(2):191-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
Hassanali Vatanparast
Jadwiga H Dolega-Cieszkowski
Susan J Whiting
Author Affiliation
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N5C9, Canada.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009 Apr;34(2):191-6
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Canada
Dietary Supplements
Female
Food Habits
Food, Fortified
Guideline Adherence
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Status
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine trends in calcium intake from foods of Canadian adults from 1970-1972 to 2004. We compiled the calcium intake of adults (aged >or=19 years) from foods from Nutrition Canada (1970-1972; n = 7036); 9 provincial nutrition surveys (1990-1999; n = 16 915); and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 (n = 20 197). Where possible, we used published confidence intervals to test for significant differences in calcium intake. In 2004, the mean calcium intake of Canadians was below Dietary Reference Intake recommendations for most adults, with the greatest difference in older adults (>or=51 years), in part because the recommended calcium intake for this group is higher (1200 mg) than that for younger adults (1,000 mg). The calcium intake of males in every age category was greater than that of females. Calcium intake increased from 1970 to 2004, yet, despite the introduction of calcium-fortified beverages to the market in the late 1990s, increases in calcium intake between 1970 and 2004 were modest. Calcium intakes in provinces were mostly similar in the 1990s and in 2004, except for women in Newfoundland and Labrador, who consumed less, especially in the 1990s, and for young men in 2004 in Prince Edward Island, who consumed more. When supplemental calcium intake was added, mean intakes remained below recommended levels, except for males 19-30 years, but the prevalence of adequacy increased in all age groups, notably for women over 50 years. The calcium intake of Canadian adults remains in need of improvement, despite fortification and supplement use.
PubMed ID
19370049 View in PubMed
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Beverage patterns among Canadian children and relationship to overweight and obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123475
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Oct;37(5):900-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Adrienne D Danyliw
Hassanali Vatanparast
Nooshin Nikpartow
Susan J Whiting
Author Affiliation
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Oct;37(5):900-6
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Beverages - adverse effects
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child Behavior
Child Development
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dietary Sucrose - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Nutrition Surveys
Obesity - epidemiology - etiology
Overweight - epidemiology - etiology
Risk
Sex Characteristics
Abstract
Sweetened beverage intake has risen in past decades, along with a rise in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Our objective was to examine the relationship between beverage intake patterns and overweight and obesity among Canadian children. Beverage intake patterns were identified by cluster analysis of data from the cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Intake data were obtained from a single 24-hour recall, height and weight were measured, and sociodemographic data were obtained via interview. Data on children and adolescents aged 2-18 years who met inclusion criteria (n = 10?038) were grouped into the following categories: 2-5 years (male and female), 6-11 years (female), 6-11 years (male), 12-18 years (female), and 12-18 years (male). ?² test was used to compare rates of overweight and obesity across clusters. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between overweight and obesity and beverage intake patterns, adjusting for potential confounders. Clustering resulted in distinct groups of who drank mostly fruit drinks, soft drinks, 100% juice, milk, high-fat milk, or low-volume and varied beverages (termed "moderate"). Boys aged 6-11 years whose beverage pattern was characterized by soft drink intake (553 ± 29 g) had increased odds of overweight-obesity (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.1) compared with a "moderate" beverage pattern (23 ± 4 g soft drink). No significant relationship emerged between beverage pattern and overweight and obesity among other age-sex groups. Using national cross-sectional dietary intake data, Canadian children do not show a beverage-weight association except among young boys who drink mostly soft drinks, and thus may be at increased risk for overweight or obesity.
PubMed ID
22694268 View in PubMed
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