Indigenous Peoples globally are part of the nutrition transition. They may be among the most extreme for the extent of dietary change experienced in the last few decades. In this paper, we report survey data from 44 representative communities from 3 large cultural areas of the Canadian Arctic: the Yukon First Nations, Dene/Métis, and Inuit communities. Dietary change was represented in 2 ways: 1) considering the current proportion of traditional food (TF) in contrast to the precontact period (100% TF); and 2) the amount of TF consumed by older vs. younger generations. Total diet, TF, and BMI data from adults were investigated. On days when TF was consumed, there was significantly less (P 40 y old consistently consumed more (P or = 30 kg/m(2)) of Arctic adults exceeded all-Canadian rates. Measures to improve nutrient-dense market food (MF) availability and use are called for, as are ways to maintain or increase TF use.
The number of individuals and families accessing food assistance programs has continued to grow throughout the 1990s. Despite the increased health risk among low-income people, few studies have addressed nutrient intake throughout the month or at the end of the month when food and financial resources are thought to be compromised, and no study has described dietary status of a random sample of food bank users. Nutrient intakes of adult female and male food bank users in metropolitan Montreal, Quebec, Canada, were monitored week-by-week over a month by dietitian-administered 24-h recall interviews. A total of 428 participants from a stratified random sample of 57 urban area food banks completed all four interviews. Mean energy intake, as an indicator of diet quantity, was similar to other adult populations (10.2 +/- 4.8 and 7.9 +/- 3.6 MJ for men and women, respectively, age 18-49 y) and not related to sociodemographic variables except the expected biological variation of age and sex. Macronutrient intake was stable throughout the month. Overall median intakes of calcium, vitamin A, and zinc were below recommended levels for all age and sex groups. Intakes of several micronutrients were related to frequency of food bank use, household size, smoking, education, and country of birth. High nutrient intake variability characterized these adult food bank users.
We assessed diets in 16 Dene/Métis communities in the Canadian Arctic. We described nutrient intakes and identified nutrients at risk among adult Dene/Métis, evaluated the influence of traditional food on diet quality, and examined the direction of dietary change by comparing intergenerational and between-community differences in dietary intake. Diet varied according to sex, age and community. Nutrients of possibly inadequate intake (irrespective of subject sex, age or community) included calcium, vitamin A and folic acid. Dietary fiber intake was also of concern. Traditional food (animals and plants harvested from the local environment) was consumed on 65. 4% of interview days; on those days intakes of iron, zinc and potassium were higher (P