Dietary intake of carbohydrates for Russian population increased from 50% to 54% of total energy intake at the expense of increasing of dietary intake of potatoes and bread products. This level of carbohydrate intake is in the normal value do not causing serious caution in relation to public health. Main resource of carbohydrates in russian diet is dietary intake of bread and bread products (about 53% of total intake), sugar and confections (25%) and potatoes (10%). Carbohydrates of fruits and vegetables make up about 5%, those of milk and diary food aso 5% of total dietary carbohydrates. Daily average intake of crude dietary fibers compose no more than 10 g per capita. Simple carbohydrates (sum of mono- and disugars) provide for about 20% of total energy intake and pure sugar gives about 12% of total energy intake of Russia's population.
Nutrient and energy intake was studied in 892 pregnant women during III trimester of pregnancy. Daily total protein intake was 65-66 g and animal protein made up 60% of total protein intake. Total fat consumption was 80-81 g, carbohydrates intake was 240-250 g. Total energy intake in Ekaterinburg's and Moscow's pregnant made up 2031 and 1978 kcal respectively. Body mass gain from I to III trimesters have formed about 9 kg or 0.41 kg per week. Body mass index (BMI) averaged 25,1 and 25,7 in Ekaterinburg's and Moscow's pregnant on day of survey. About 2,5% of women had BMI lower than 19,8. The results were compared with data of developed countries and conclusion was made about sufficient energy and macronutrient intakes, but fat intake was moderately high and formed 33-35% of total energy. The usefulness of Russian RDA are discussed for evaluation of results of dietary surveys.
Annual surveys of the food intakes and nutritional status of schoolchildren (aged 10 and 15 y) in a Moscow district were conducted in 1992-1995, a period of rapid economic transformation in Russia. Food intake was assessed through use of two 24-h recalls. A few socioeconomic variables-parental educational level, family size, participation in organized sports, and use of school breakfast and lunch options-were included in the dietary interview. Nutritional status was assessed by measurement of height and weight and comparison with international standards. There was a slight difference in the food pattern in the two age groups and some differences between boys and girls. Milk and other dairy products, fruit, juices, and vegetables were consumed in small quantities and relatively infrequently. Bread and bread products, porridge, confectionery, and meat and meat products were consumed more frequently and in larger quantities. Protein contributed approximately 12% and fat 29-32% of dietary energy. About 70% of the subjects had low intakes of riboflavin and calcium compared with reference values. Mean nutrient intakes did not change significantly during the study period. During the first 3 y of the study period, there was a nonsignificant overall decrease in height and weight but this was within the limits of normal variation.
The study of the nutrition and the nutritional status children of the first year age and children earliest age were conducted on nationally representative surveys (2500 children, 2-24 months) the Institute of Nutrition, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences with the Institute of Sociology Russian of Academy of Sciences, Gerber Product Company and Nestle Company in 2006. The level the frequency of breast feeding had among children 1 m.--80%, 2-4 m.--70%, 4-6 m.--60%. The lowest body mass Z-scores were registered 0.5-5.0% among of children, the tendency of obesity increase in the age were registered from 1.6 to 13% of children. Calculations of chemical composition and energy value of actual nutrition have show according to the values requirements.
[Monitoring food consumption and nutritional status of Moscow schoolchildren in 1992-1994. 2. Anthropometric evaluation of nutritional status, effect of social factors on the character and status of nutrition].
In this part of the study the nutritional status of Moscow's schoolchildren was assessed by height and weight. The anthropometric data were compared with the CDC/WHO international growth references standards by ANTHRO version 1.01 software. The prevalence of low weight-for-age (Z-score
The analysis of actual nutrition of different groups of population of The Russian Federation, based on the data of The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey 1994-2003, showed that more that 80% of the population consumes insufficient quantity of calcium. Taking into account low level of calcium consumption, bioavailability and its excretion, one can say, that calcium supply of the population of The Russian Federation is poor now.
[Development of a method of studying actual nutrition according to analysis of the frequency of consumption of food products: creation of a questionnaire and general evaluation of the reliability of the method].
The method of actual feeding evaluation on frequency of food-stuffs consumption was developed. The method of 24-hour reproduction of a feed and the method of consumed food registration in a diary by testing person himself. The main results of study testified to reliability of data, received by a developed method.