OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study vitamin D intake in young Icelandic children. METHODS: Subjects were randomly selected infants (n=180, 77% participated) and 2-year-olds (n=140, 68% participated). These two groups were studied again at the age of 6 years (71% participated). The intake was assessed by weighed food records. Vitamin D intake was calculated using the Icelandic Nutrition Database and SPSS used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Characteristic for vitamin D intake was a wide range of intake. More than quarter of the infants and half of the two and six year olds received less than 50% of recommended daily intake. The frequency of fish liver oil consumption or use of other vitamin D supplement was 40-68%, lowest among the 6-year-olds. Vitamin D intake of those consuming fish liver oil or vitamin D supplements was 10,4 microg/day on average for infants, 9,5 microg/dag for the two year olds and 12,3 microg/dag for the six year olds, four or five times that of those not consuming any vitamin D supplements (2,7 microg/day, 2,1 microg/day and 2,7 microg/day for infants, 2-year-olds and six-year-olds, respectively). CONCLUSION: The results show that children who do not consume fish liver oils or vitamin D supplements get only one quarter or less of recommended daily intake for vitamin D from their diet. Vitamin D is important for normal function and growth of the body and its role for bone development is well known. It is important to give detailed recommendations on vitamin D intake for infants and children and ensure the compliance to the recommended intake to avoid too low and too high intake.
Nutrition in pregnancy may affect growth, development and health of the child in the short and long term. We aimed to assess diet and nutrient intake among pregnant women in the capital area and evaluate differences in dietary intake between women who were overweight/obese and normal weight before pregnancy.
Pregnant women aged 18-40 years (n=183) living in the capital area kept four day weighed food records to assess diet and nutrient intake in the 19th-24th week of pregnancy (n=98 with body mass index (BMI)
Knowledge of dietary habits makes the basis for public nutrition policy. The aim of this study was to assess dietary intake of Icelandic six-year-olds.
Subjects were randomly selected six-year-old children (n=162). Dietary intake was assessed by three-day-weighed food records. Food and nutrient intake was compared with the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and recommended intake of vitamins and minerals.
Fruit and vegetable intake was on average 275Â±164 g/d, and less than 20% of the subjects consumed =400 g/day. Fish and cod liver oil intake was in line with the FBDG among approximately 25% of subjects. Most subjects (87%) consumed at least two portions of dairy products daily. Food with relatively low nutrient density (cakes, cookies, sugar sweetened drinks, sweets and ice-cream) provided up to 25% of total energy intake. The contribution of saturated fatty acids to total energy intake was 14.1%. Less than 20% of the children consumed dietary fibers in line with recommendations, and for saturated fat and salt only 5% consumed less than the recommended upper limits. Average intake of most vitamins and minerals, apart from vitamin-D, was higher than the recommended intake.
Although the vitamin and mineral density of the diet seems adequate, with the exception of vitamin-D, the contribution of low energy density food to total energy intake is high. Intake of vegetables, fruits, fish and cod liver oil is not in line with public recommendations. Strategies aiming at improving diet of young children are needed.
Here we compare results on food and nutrient intake from the two most recent Icelandic national nutrition surveys from 2010/11 and 2002 and compare intake of energy giving nutrients from 1990. Finally we assess associations beween a healthy diet and difficulties people have in making ends meet.
Participants were selected by a random sample from the national register. Final sample was 1912 individuals in 2010/11 and 1934 in 2002, response rate 68.6% and 70.6% respectively. Diet was assessed by 24-hour recall. Results from the surveys were calculated using t-test and sssociations between a healthy diet and difficulties making ends meet by linear regression.
Consumption of bread, bisquits, cakes and cookies, margarine, highly processed meat products, chips, sugared soft drinks and whole milk was lower in 2010/11 than in 2002 while consumption of whole grain bread, oat meal, fruits, vegetables, meat and cod liver oil was higher. Fish intake was unchanged. Fat intake decreased from 1990 to 2010/11, from 41E% to 35E%, saturated fatty acids from 20.0E% to 14.5E% and trans-fatty acids from 2.0E% to 0.8E%. Most of the changes occurred between 1990 and 2002. People having difficulties making ends meet consumed less fruits, vegetables and whole grain bread but more soft drinks in 2010/11 than those not having difficulties.
Dietary changes in Iceland from 2002 have mostly been toward recommended intake. Between 1990 and 2002 fat consumption decreased considerably, while less significant changes occurred from 2002 til 2010/11. Economic status is associated with healthy diet in Iceland.