To estimate energy, nutrient intake and diet adequacy in school-aged children based on the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006).
Food intake data from food frequency questionnaires was analyzed for 8 716 children aged 5 to 11 years. Energy and nutrients intake and adequacy were obtained. Comparisons were made at regional, urban/rural areas, socioeconomic status (SES) and nutrition status (body mass index and height/age).
Median energy intake was 1501 kcal/d (percent adequacy: 88.0). Overweight and obesity prevalence was 25.5%. Stunting prevalence was 10%. Children at lowest SES, indigenous and from rural communities showed the highest inadequacies for vitamin A, folate, zinc, and calcium. Overweight children and those highest SES had higher risk of excessive intakes.
Coexistence of over- and undernutrition reflects a polarized model of nutrition transition among Mexican children.
The contribution of the various food groups to the nutrient intakes of a group of independently-living elderly individuals in Toronto is described. The pattern of meal and food intakes generally provided enough of the nutrients, excepting calcium, to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Canadians. Mean energy intake was low. It is suggested that if relatively small amounts of the foods ingested at the different meals are raised, it will likely provide enough energy and all the nutrients to satisfy the recommended levels of intake.
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the consumption of unfiltered coffee brews, which contain the cholesterol-raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, in elderly subjects. DESIGN: Interviews of randomly selected elderly in the 1993 SENECA Study on Nutrition and the Elderly in Europe. SETTING: Nine towns in eight European countries (Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland, Poland, and Northern Ireland/United Kingdom). SUBJECTS: 962 relatively healthy elderly persons (460 men, 502 women) born between 1913 and 1918. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Daily coffee consumption, classified by brewing technique. RESULTS: About 90 percent of the examinees were daily coffee users in Roskilde/Denmark (population means; men 530 ml/d, women 425 ml/d) and Culemborg/the Netherlands (men 513 ml/d, women 285 ml/d), against only 12% in Marki/Poland (population means; men 14 ml/d, women 36 ml/d) and 7% in Coimbra/Portugal (men 8 ml/d, women 0 ml/d). Drip-filtered and instant coffee, which are poor in diterpenes, were the prevalent types in most survey towns. Espresso and mocha coffee, which contain intermediate amounts of diterpenes, were consumed daily by 31% of the coffee drinkers in Switzerland and by all coffee drinkers in Italy, but intake was too low to substantially affect serum cholesterol levels. Consumption of brews that are rich in diterpenes, such as cafetiere, boiled, or Turkish/Greek coffee, was negligible in all survey towns. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee drinking is common among elderly people in some European countries, but intake of cafestol and kahweol with unfiltered coffee brews is low.