To estimate energy, nutrient intake and diet adequacy in school-aged children based on the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006).
Food intake data from food frequency questionnaires was analyzed for 8 716 children aged 5 to 11 years. Energy and nutrients intake and adequacy were obtained. Comparisons were made at regional, urban/rural areas, socioeconomic status (SES) and nutrition status (body mass index and height/age).
Median energy intake was 1501 kcal/d (percent adequacy: 88.0). Overweight and obesity prevalence was 25.5%. Stunting prevalence was 10%. Children at lowest SES, indigenous and from rural communities showed the highest inadequacies for vitamin A, folate, zinc, and calcium. Overweight children and those highest SES had higher risk of excessive intakes.
Coexistence of over- and undernutrition reflects a polarized model of nutrition transition among Mexican children.
To document the energy and nutrient intake of Mexican preschool children using data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006).
Dietary data from 3 552 children less than 5 years old collected through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analyzed. Energy and nutrient daily intakes and adequacies were calculated. Comparisons were made by geographic region, residence locality, and socioeconomic status.
The Mexico City region showed the highest energy (103.2%), carbohydrate (109.9%), and fat (110.1%) adequacies. The highest proportion of preschoolers with energy and micronutrients inadequacy (adequacy
In 2006, 20 % of adolescents aged 12-17 years used dietary supplements. Persons with high physical activity levels as well as those with high education levels consumed dietary supplements more often than others. Many supplement users used only one single-nutrient supplement. A similarly large proportion of users consumed one supplement with multiple nutrients. Most often supplements containing vitamin C, magnesium, B-vitamins, vitamin E and calcium were used.
Provincial nutrition surveys of adults were conducted between 1990 and 1999 in Canada. Eight reports have been issued, and one is forthcoming. The purpose of this study was to estimate the national dietary intake of adult Canadians, using the publicly available data. Group mean-nutrient-intake data from 16 915 adults, aged 18 to 84 years, from published provincial reports were collated by age and sex for each of 9 provinces (Manitoba data were unavailable). Using Canadian census data appropriate to the year of collection, intake data were weighted to provide 1 national intake value for each nutrient, by 8 age and sex categories. In general, the energy and nutrient intake of adults decreased with age. For every age group, with the exception of vitamin C, intake of nutrients by men was greater than that by women. On the basis of a comparison of recently recommended intakes (Dietary Reference Intakes), the nutrients that are of concern because of inadequate intake include dietary fibre, calcium, magnesium, and folate. The data demonstrate the impact of folate fortification on folate intake; the mean intake became twice that of prefortification levels. This study used group mean-intake data; therefore, we cannot make definitive conclusions about the prevalence of inadequacy for the nutrients. Because of limitations with some provincial response rates, our data should not be construed as representative of the Canadian population. However, because these surveys were completed between the 19701972 Nutrition Canada Survey and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, these population-weighted data might be a useful point of comparison for monitoring trends in nutrient intake from food.
Day-to-day variability in dietary intake makes it difficult to measure accurately the "usual" intake of foods and nutrients. The objectives of the present study were to estimate within- and between-subject variability for foods and nutrients by adjusted and unadjusted models and to assess the number of days required to assess nutrient and food group intakes accurately by two different methods. Adult men and women aged 18-65 y (n = 1543) in the Food Habits of Canadians Study provided a 24-h recall. A repeat interview was conducted in a subsample to estimate components of variability. Within- and between-subject variability were determined by mixed model procedure (crude and adjusted for age, gender, education, smoking, family size and season). The number of days required to obtain various degrees of accuracy was ascertained by two methods, one that uses the variance ratio for groups and one that considers within-subject variability alone for individuals. Variance ratios were higher using the adjusted compared with the unadjusted method (e.g., for men, energy 1.07 vs. 0.49). More days were required to reflect usual intake with accuracy using the adjusted model (energy 5 vs. 2 d), indicating the need to control for confounders to obtain reliable estimates of intakes.
Of the 48 nutrition surveys conducted by the ICNND/Office of International Research/CDC Nutrition Programs during the years 1956-1970, 20 were performed in North America. Native Americans were surveyed in Alaska in 1958 and in Montana in 1961. In partnership with INCAP (Institute for Central America and Panama), six Central American countries were surveyed in 1965 through 1967. As mandated by Congress, 10 American states and one major city were surveyed during 1968-1970. Civilian and some military populations were included in these surveys. Teams of health, agriculture, and nutrition specialists drawn from academic institutions and from national and international agencies conducted each survey. We followed the methodology, standards, and definitions developed by ICNND in its Manual for Nutrition Surveys. Detailed findings, results and recommendations were published in a series of reports printed by the U.S. Government Printing Office. All 20 of the North American surveys found similar groups at risk of nutrition problems, including dental caries, goiter, growth retardation, female obesity, and "low" levels of hemoglobin, vitamin A, thiamin, and riboflavin. Survey recommendations followed common themes: nutrition education, nutrient fortification of food or water, expanded supplemental food programs, provision of safe water supplies, proper sanitation and food safety, and enhanced nutrient content of basic foods.
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is of special concern. Inverse associations between sleep length and overweight have been found in children. Short sleeping hours result in hormonal changes, which increase perceived hunger and appetite. This could affect food intake, and consequently lead to overweight. The aim is to find out whether there is an association between adequate sleep and food consumption among 10-11-year-old school children in Finland. One thousand two hundred and sixty-five children (response rate 79 %), aged 9-11, from thirty-one schools filled in a questionnaire about their health behaviour. Inadequate sleep was measured as short sleeping hours during school nights and weekend nights, difficulties in waking up in the morning and tiredness during the day. Food consumption patterns were measured by two consumption indices, energy-rich foods and nutrient-dense foods, based on a short FFQ (sixteen items). Inadequate sleep is associated with food consumption patterns. Boys with shorter sleep duration during school nights, and who were felt tired during the day, were more likely to consume energy-rich foods. Girls with shorter sleep duration during school nights consumed more likely energy-rich foods and less likely nutrient-dense foods. Adjusting for physical activity and screen time weakened the explored associations. The associations with energy-rich foods were stronger for boys than for girls. Sleeping habits are associated with food consumption patterns. Shorter sleep duration during school nights in school children is associated with higher consumption of energy-rich foods.