BACKGROUND. Dietary factors are presumed to have influence on bone mass and hence fracture susceptibility. Most information in this respect is based on retrospective assessment of previous dietary habits. In a population-based case-control study nested within a cohort, we collected dietary information both before and after a first hip fracture. Thus it was possible to study reported changes in dietary habits, intentional as well as unintentional, among hip fracture patients after a first hip fracture and to compare postfracture with prefracture dietary information. METHODS. More than 65 000 women born 1914-1948 in two counties in central Sweden completed a food frequency questionnaire regarding their usual current dietary habits, before attending a mammographic screening between the years 1987 and 1990. Subsequently 123 of them sustained a first hip fracture and were defined as cases in the present study. For every case, one control, individually matched by age and county of residence, was selected from the cohort. A second identical food frequency questionnaire was mailed to both cases and controls on average 2 years after the hip fracture event. In total 98 case/control pairs could be included in the analysis. The association between diet and hip fracture was evaluated and the results from the two dietary assessments were contrasted. Women who themselves claimed that they had not changed their diet in recent years were analysed separately. RESULTS. The hip fracture cases, compared with the controls, had reduced their reported dietary intake of dairy products after the fracture. Apparently this was not intentional since this effect was more pronounced among those cases who claimed that their diet was unchanged. The changes were most apparent among the younger cases with a more recent hip fracture and with a body mass index above the median. Half of the cases, more than twice the frequency in controls, who were initially classified as having high intake of dairy products were classified as having low intake (
The association between the frequency of meat and fish intake and the incidence rate of breast cancer has been analyzed in 152 incident cases that developed among 14,500 Norwegian women during 11 to 14 years of follow-up. At the time of dietary inquiry they were between 35 and 51 years of age. A positive association was observed between the frequency of overall meat intake and breast cancer risk. There was an age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.8 (95% confidence limits, 1.1 and 3.1) for women who had a main meal with meat 5 times or more per week compared to women who had 2 meat dinners or less per week, and this association displayed a linear trend (chi 2 trend = 4.30, p = 0.04). No association was detected between the overall frequency of fish for dinner and breast cancer risk (chi 2 trend = 1.39, p = 0.24), but there was an inverse relation with the frequency of main meals containing fish in poached form. The age-adjusted IRR was 0.7 (95% confidence limits, 0.4 and 1.0) for women who had poached fish for dinner at least 5 times per month compared to women who had fish in this form twice monthly or less often (chi 2 trend = 3.56, p = 0.06). The positive association with meat may be in accordance with the hypothesis that dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer. Although there was no association with overall fish intake, the inverse relation with poached fish might deserve further investigation.
Mild, growth-limiting zinc deficiency might be prevalent in otherwise healthy infants according to recent studies. We examined zinc intake and status in 91 healthy term infants from birth to 12 months, as part of the Copenhagen Cohort Study on Infant Nutrition and Growth. Zinc intake was recorded monthly and the amount of zinc absorbed was estimated. These estimates were below recently published FAO/WHO/IAEA values for basal requirements in 68%, 62% and 14% of the infants at 2, 4 and 9 months of age, respectively. Serum zinc decreased significantly (p
The relationship between incidence of lung cancer and intake of dietary fats, high-fat foods, fish, and fish products was studied in 25,956 men and 25,496 women aged 16-56 years attending Norwegian health screening between 1977 and 1983. Linkage to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway ensured a complete follow-up until 31 December 1991. Diet was recorded on a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and 153 cases of lung cancer were identified during follow-up. Mean age at diagnosis was 56 years. After adjusting for smoking status, gender, age at screening, and attained age, significant lower risks were found for cod liver oil supplement (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-1.0) and for skim milk compared to whole milk (IRR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.9)). No association was found with dietary cholesterol and saturated fat. A threshold of increased risk starting at the second quartile was seen for mono- and polyunsaturated fat. The potential protective effect of cod liver oil, a supplement rich in preformed vitamin A, omega-3 fatty acids, and monounsaturated fat, has to our knowledge, not been reported before. Confounding from lifestyle is possible, but the result deserves further investigation.
Serum lipid levels are considered to be one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged men and women. The significance, however, of serum lipid metabolism as a cardiovascular disease risk factor in the elderly has yet to be clarified. This paper focuses upon the serum lipid levels of groups of elderly people from 18 centres with diversified socioeconomic backgrounds in 11 European countries. Serum cholesterol was measured with an enzymatic colorimetric method by autoanalyser in one laboratory and accuracy was checked by participation in the quality control programme of the Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA, USA. Mean (+/- SD) serum cholesterol levels ranged from 6.56 +/- 0.66 mmol/l (Bellinzona, Switzerland) to 5.22 +/- 0.68 mmol/l (Coimbra, Portugal) in men, and in women from 7.77 +/- 1.61 mmol/l (Elverum, Norway) to 5.86 +/- 1.07 mmol/l (Anogia-Archanes/Greece). The mean levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ranged from 1.40 +/- 0.58 mmol/l (Chateau Renault-Amboise, France) to 1.05 +/- 0.28 mmol/l (Elverum, Norway) in men and from 1.62 +/- 0.41 mmol/l (Padua, Italy) to 1.23 +/- 0.29 mmol/l (Anogia-Archanes, Greece; Vila Franca de Xira, Portugal) in women. The highest median serum triglyceride values were found in Norway (Elverum) (men: 1.50 mmol/l, women: 1.75 mmol/l), and one of the French groups (Chateau Renault-Amboise) had the lowest median values (men: 1.07 mmol/l, women: 1.15 mmol/l). Significant differences between participating centres and between sexes were found for the following variables: serum cholesterol, HDL, and the ratio total HDL cholesterol/total cholesterol. For triglycerides the differences were significant only between centres, not between the sexes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)