Adipose tissue fatty acids, it has been proposed, reflect dietary intake. Using data from a validation study preceding a prospective study on diet, cancer, and health in Denmark, we were able to compare fatty acid profiles in adipose tissue biopsies from 86 individuals (23 men and 63 women) aged 40-64 y and dietary intake of fatty acids (as percentage of total fat) assessed by two 7-d weighed-diet records or by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Correlation coefficients (Pearson r) between fatty acid concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies (as percentage of total peak area) and dietary intake of fatty acid (percentage of total fat), determined from the diet records for men and women, respectively, were as follows: polyunsaturated fatty acids r = 0.74 and r = 0.46; n - 3 fatty acids of marine origin: eicosapentaenoic acid r = 0.15 and r = 0.61, and docosahexaenoic acid r = 0.47 and r = 0.57. Correlation coefficients obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire were slightly lower for most fatty acids.
Although surveys have reported that the fat content of the diet has decreased over past decades, the prevalence of obesity has continued to rise in Europe and North America. This phenomenon, 'the American paradox', has been attributed partly to an inability of the reduction in dietary fat to reduce excess body fat, and partly to the over-consumption of low-fat products, which, despite their reduced fat content, have in some cases been accused of maintaining a high energy density due to low fibre and water contents, and a high content of refined carbohydrates. In Denmark, the prevalence of obesity has increased in a period in which national dietary surveys have reported a reduction of more than 10% in dietary fat content. Analysing the Danish situation, it seems unlikely that the occurrence of the American paradox in Denmark is caused by the increased consumption of energy-dense, low-fat foods. Other explanations, e.g. the under-reporting of dietary fat in surveys and the clustering of obesity-promoting lifestyles in subgroups of the population, should be sought.
OBJECTIVE: To assess manifest bias in ageing effects, i.e. longitudinal changes due to unintended time effects or to selection. DESIGN: Mixed-longitudinal study in birth cohorts 1913-1918, with baseline measurements taken in 1988/1989 and repeated in 1993, including a short questionnaire in non-responders. SETTING: Full baseline and follow-up data were collected in nine towns in eight European countries including Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland. Incomplete data were available from towns in Portugal, Poland, Northern Ireland and Connecticut, USA. SUBJECTS: Using standardized methodologies data were collected from a random age-stratified sample of elderly men and women, including a total of 1221 re-invited subjects from nine towns and 210 newly-invited subjects from three towns in 1993. RESULTS: An overall retrieval of 50-74% of the former participants could be reached in towns that had previously participated (apart from one exception of 41%), where estimates of mortality varied from 10% to 18%. There was a tendency for healthy and active persons to have a higher participation rate than others, as was the case for high educated newly-invited subjects compared to lower educational classes. For most of the variables used in the analysis of period effects, no evidence of any undesirable period effect was found. In those instances that period effects showed up to be statistically significant, coinciding implausible cohort effects gave the impression that these were due to instability of the estimation procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Non-participants may be less healthy and active than the participants. Only very limited unconvincing evidence to suggest unintended time effects was observed. This confirms the high standards of the methodology and of measurements.
Association of serum lipids with metabolic control and diet were studied in 72 young subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Data on food consumption were collected by the 48-h recall method. Glycosylated haemoglobin (Hb) A1 was used as a measure of metabolic control. There were no differences between males and females in the mean values for serum total cholesterol (TC, 4.5 and 4.9 mmol/l, respectively), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, 2.7 and 3.0 mmol/l), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 1.3 and 1.4 mmol/l), or serum triglycerides (TG, 1.1 and 1.0 mmol/l). Diabetic subjects who were in better metabolic control (HbA1 or = 10.5%) had lower TC and TG values and a higher HDL-C/TC ratio. HbA1 level and intake of saturated fatty acids were positively associated with serum TC and LDL-C values and explained 14% and 15% of the variation in TC and LDL-C, respectively. HbA1 level and insulin dose per kg of body weight were positively associated with serum TG values and explained 30% of the variation in TG. Serum TC and LDL-C levels of young subjects with IDDM could be lowered by improving their metabolic control and decreasing their saturated fatty acid intake.
The primary aim of this study is to determine the nutritional quality of the food prepared in a selected Danish hospital. Samples consisted of four double portions of the hospital's standard daily ration from two randomly chosen weeks. The amounts of fatty acid, protein, ash, total dry material, and vitamin C were measured. The amount of carbohydrate, energy, and percentage of available energy were calculated. The total energy level was measured to eight MJ per day. The measured percentage of available energy given as protein (17%) and the vitamin C levels (14 mg/MJ) have fulfilled the recommendations. The percentage of energy given as carbohydrates (38%) is below and the percentage of energy given as fat (45%) is above the recommended levels (50% and 32%). There is a direct correlation between the average calculated and the average measured values when all of the meals are analysed as an entity, but the correlation is weak for individual meals.
To evaluate body fatness in subjects complying with common public health guidelines for lipid and alcohol intake as well as physical activity participation.
A sample of 358 male subjects who participated in phase 1 of the Quebec Family Study.
The association between adiposity, lipid and alcohol intake and physical activity participation was analyzed in the overall sample. A comparison of body fatness in individuals adhering or not to public health recommendations was also performed.
Significant positive correlations were observed between the percentage of dietary energy as lipid and adiposity indicators. Accordingly, subjects classified as low-fat consumers displayed significantly lower levels of fat mass and subcutaneous adiposity compared to high-fat consumers. When subjects reporting low lipid and alcohol intake and regular participation in vigorous physical activities were compared to those exhibiting opposite behaviors, the between-group difference in subcutaneous adiposity was doubled and this was essentially explained by an increase in the difference for truncal subcutaneous adiposity.
These results indicate that the adherence to a lifestyle characterized by high-fat and alcohol intake as well as sedentariness promotes fat gain, particularly in the trunk area.
Dietary intake of carbohydrates for Russian population increased from 50% to 54% of total energy intake at the expense of increasing of dietary intake of potatoes and bread products. This level of carbohydrate intake is in the normal value do not causing serious caution in relation to public health. Main resource of carbohydrates in russian diet is dietary intake of bread and bread products (about 53% of total intake), sugar and confections (25%) and potatoes (10%). Carbohydrates of fruits and vegetables make up about 5%, those of milk and diary food aso 5% of total dietary carbohydrates. Daily average intake of crude dietary fibers compose no more than 10 g per capita. Simple carbohydrates (sum of mono- and disugars) provide for about 20% of total energy intake and pure sugar gives about 12% of total energy intake of Russia's population.
New analytical data of Finnish foods were utilized in calculating the intakes of 8 different carotenoids, 6 retinoids, 4 tocopherols and tocotrienols in a Finnish population sample (5403 men and 4750 women) forming a basis for prospective studies on the associations of diet and chronic diseases. Data on habitual food consumption referring to the preceding year were collected by a dietary history interview method in 1967-1972. Beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene, mainly provided by different vegetables, were the most abundant carotenoids. Alltrans retinol was a predominant retinoid compound. A major proportion of total vitamin A (85% in men and 74% in women) was attributed to dietary retinoids. Alpha-tocopherol accounted for approximately half of the total tocopherols and tocotrienols of diet, and made up approximately 85% of total vitamin E. Intakes of different tocopherols and tocotrienols were mainly associated with the consumption of cereal products and/or margarine and oils, but alpha-tocopherol and vitamin E had several other food sources. It is suggested that these more specific measures for carotenoids and tocopherols would increase the accuracy of estimating health impacts of antioxidant vitamins in the study population.