Fulfilling nutritional requirements in residents with eating problems can be a challenge for both the person in need of help and for the caregiver. In helping and supporting these residents, a positive attitude is assumed to be as important as practical skill. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that nutritional education and implementation of a nutritional programme would change the attitudes towards nutritional nursing care among nursing staff with daily experience of serving food and helping residents in municipal care. The study was carried out as a before and after experimental design. An attitude scale, staff attitudes to nutritional nursing care (SANN scale), was developed and used. The response on the scale gives a total SANN-score and scores in five underlying dimensions: self ability, individualization, importance of food, assessment and secured food intake. Nursing staff at eight different residential units (n = 176) responded to the attitude scale and, of these, staff at three of the units entered the study as the experimental group. After responding to the attitude scale, nutritional education was introduced and a nutritional programme was implemented in the experimental units. One year later, attitudes were measured a second time (n = 192). Of these, 151 had also responded on the first occasion. Education and implementation of a nutritional programme did not significantly change attitudes. Overall, nursing staff responded with positive attitudes towards nutritional nursing care. Most of the positive attitudes concerned items within the dimension importance of food. In contrast, items within self ability showed the lowest number of staff with positive attitudes.
Professional drivers, i.e. lorry, truck, bus and taxi drivers, have been identified as a particular health risk group. An intervention to study the efficacy of a series of educational programmes, involving improved nutritional balance in meals served, food preparation routines and carrying out personal health profiles on staff, was implemented at a Swedish truck stop in order to target this specific hard-to-reach risk group. Professional drivers were targeted through an information campaign, healthier 'Today's Special' choices and by using staff as proxy health promoters. A campaign emblem on the menu notice board indicated healthier food choice menu items. Drivers choosing healthier alternatives were given lottery tokens. The intervention was evaluated through nutritional analyses, field observations, questionnaires and interviews. Positive staff-level outcomes included increased nutritional awareness, personal health empowerment and, most crucially, overwhelming staff support for a health-promoting role. Nutritional analysis of pre- and post-intervention 'Today's Specials' showed a better balance of fat, calories, carbohydrates and protein (per 100 g) content in the dishes tested. At management level there were economic benefits in terms of time savings and reduced use of cooking fat in food preparation. Drivers tended to choose healthier alternatives and there was increased awareness of the healthier alternatives on offer. The case study showed that using truck stop staff as proxy health promoters offers a viable intervention strategy.
The nutrition education program, sponsored by the Hudson's Bay Company, in remote northern communities, both Inuit and Indian, is described. The program identifies nutritious foods in the company's community stores by coding in the colours associated with the food groups of Canada's Food Guide. It involves the cooperation of key individuals from the community and various community agencies and organizations.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1217.
The aim of this study was to investigate and interpret ideas inherent in sleep and diet consultations concerning infants in Swedish child health services. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews of professionals employed in these services. A qualitative method with a phenomenological approach was applied to analyse the data. The results indicate that professionals have underlying conceptions. They considered that when parents force food on their child, this is a violation of the child's integrity. This view is based on the idea that such actions restrict the child's right to self-determination. In the participants' opinions, when the child is forced to sleep well, this is not regarded as a violation of the child's integrity, but is perceived as support of the child's autonomy. An underlying theoretical view may be that parents' time can be saved if the child becomes independent of the parents at as early an age as possible.
The extent to which the dietary practices recommended by nutrition science are compatible with an enjoyable lifestyle is a recurring theme in the debate on food and health in Denmark. The aim of this study was to see in practice what problems arise when ordinary people are confronted with a healthy diet. Fourteen of the participants in an 8 month dietary intervention study were interviewed about their opinions of, and experiences with, a diet composed in accordance with the Nordic nutrition recommendations. The interviews were qualitative, in depth and semistructured. The participants were interviewed twice, the first time towards the end of the intervention and again 3 months after the intervention ended. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. For the participants, who were young students with a relatively high knowledge of nutrition, practical experience of a recommended diet was a series of surprises: the amount of food, its similarity to modern Danish food culture, its palatability, and the relatively small amount of dairy products in the diet were contrary to participants expectations. Participants found the recommended diet pleasant to live on, but expected certain economical and practical difficulties in applying it to everyday life outside the intervention. Hunger and satiety sensations changed and became more distinct. The results of the study indicate suggestions relevant for both industrial product development and nutrition information to the public.
A national core curriculum in clinical nutrition was approved by the Section for Nutrition in the Swedish Society of Medicine in 1995. Here we report on the results of an anonymous diagnostic test based on this core curriculum in clinical nutrition, administered to medical students at the end of medical school. The test was the same for students in Linköping, Lund and Stockholm. Only 42% of the participants obtained an acceptable test result, with the score in Lund being significantly lower than those in Linköping and Stockholm. We compare the results with a similar test administered in Stockholm in 1996, and discuss current developmental work in clinical nutrition being done in all the medical faculties in Sweden.
AIMS: To describe the organization and implementation of nutrition policies, and examine intervention strategies for dietary change in three Scandinavian countries. METHODS: Descriptions of nutrition policies and dietary intervention strategies are based on published nutrition policy research and reports. RESULTS: All countries studied have adopted formal nutrition policies. Norway issued its first white paper in 1976, the Finnish National Nutrition Council published an action plan in 1989, and the Swedish Government issued an official action plan in 1995. Norway has a centralized National Nutrition Council with a permanent administration whereas the responsibilities and administration are more spread out between several authorities and groups in Finland and Sweden. Amongst the dietary intervention strategies employed, a Norwegian nutrition campaign, symbol labelling of foods in Sweden, the community-based North Karelia Project in Finland, and mass catering in Finland and Sweden have been selected as potentially transferable. CONCLUSIONS: Policy documents serve as guidelines for activities and assist in achieving dietary targets. A responsible administrative body with advice from a standing expert committee is valuable for implementation. Guidelines, recommendations or voluntary labelling standards can be incentives to product development and changes to food production. Regional demonstration projects may also encourage action and collaboration.
In 1989, 674 schoolchildren aged 12-14 years in nine elementary schools in a municipality in Copenhagen, Denmark, answered a questionnaire about their dietary habits and knowledge. The majority of the pupils had fruit (87%), vegetables (72%), rye bread (81%), and drank fat-reduced milk (73%) every day. A diet score (reliability = 0.58) was calculated on the basis of the intake of 8 food items relevant to current dietary recommendations. There were no age and sex differences as to dietary habits, but immigrant children had a lower diet score than native children. Dietary knowledge was measured by the ability to state correctly whether 11 different food items had a high content or not of fat, sugar or dietary fibres. Dietary knowledge was highest for questions about fat and sugar. A knowledge score measured the number of correct answers to all 33 questions (reliability = 0.90). Knowledge was highest among older children, native children, and children with the most healthy dietary habits. In the multivariate regression analysis, knowledge, health attitudes and ethnicity were the only significant predictors of dietary behaviour. It is concluded that both social and personal factors are important for dietary behaviour, and health promotion in children should include other methods than educational programmes.