When doing secondary data analysis, it is not uncommon to find that a key variable was not measured. Often the researcher has no option but to do without the missing indicator, but when nearly parallel datasets exist, the researcher may have other options. In an earlier article leading up to this special issue, this research team was confronted with the problem that research utilization had been measured in only one of two similar datasets, namely, in the 1996 but not the 1998 Alberta Registered Nurse survey. The 1998 dataset had a larger sample size (6,526 compared to 600 nurse respondents in 1996) and a stronger set of measured variables, but was missing the key variable of interest--research utilization. To overcome this, a regression-based strategy was used to create a research utilization score for each nurse in the 1998 survey by exploiting the availability of several anticipated causes of research utilization in both datasets. Presented here is an alternative and more complicated procedure that might be applied in future investigations. The article presents a methodological understanding of how to use a phantom variable to account for the unmeasured research utilization variable in a two-group structural equation model. This approach could be used to overcome several of the limitations connected to using a regression-based approach to creating a key missing variable when nearly parallel datasets are available.
Comment On: Nurs Res. 2006 May-Jun;55(3):149-6016708039
This position paper will: 1. Provide an update on relevant current developments in the education, training and positioning of clinician nurse scientists; 2. Provide and promote a rational argument for the development of the clinician nurse scientist role; and 3. Discuss issues related to capacity building in clinical research in neuroscience nursing, with specific reference to and support for the cerebrovascular (stroke) specialty nursing area.
The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of research utilization among clinical nurse educators. The primary goal for clinical nurse educators is the facilitation of professional development of practicing nurses. Responsibilities include promoting best practice by mentoring others, acting as an information source, and assisting in the development of policies and procedures based on available research evidence. Using Rogers' (Diffusion of Innovations, 4th edn., The Free Press, New York) diffusion of innovations theory as a theoretical foundation, we conducted a secondary analysis to test a predictive model of research utilization using linear regression. Results show that educators report significantly higher research use than staff nurses and managers. Predictors of research utilization include attitude toward research, awareness of information based on research, and involvement in research activities. Localite communication predicted conceptual research use and mass media predicted symbolic use, lending support to the idea that overall, instrumental, conceptual, and symbolic research utilization are conceptually different from one another. Our findings show that the research utilization behaviors of clinical nurse educators position them to facilitate evidence-based nursing practice in organizations. We discuss the theoretical, conceptual, and nursing role implications of our findings for nursing practice, education, and research. Suggestions for future research includes studying actual use of research findings of clinical nurse educators and designing intervention studies that assesses the effectiveness of clinical nurse educators as facilitators of research utilization in organizations.
The interest in finding ways to bridge the gap between nursing research and implementation of findings into practice has been increasing. Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) may be a bridge between frontline nurses and current developments in practice. While several researchers have studied the use of evidence by nurses in general, no known studies have been focused specifically on the use of evidence by CNSs.
The purpose of this pilot study was to develop an understanding of the sources, nature, and application of evidence used by CNSs in practice and to investigate the feasibility of conducting a qualitative study focused on the CNS role in relation to evidence use in practice.
This pilot study is a descriptive exploratory design in the qualitative paradigm. Seven CNSs from a large Western Canadian health region were interviewed. Interview transcripts were reviewed for recurrent themes about sources of evidence, evidence use, and barriers and facilitators to evidence use.
CNSs access and use evidence from a variety of sources. All CNSs indicated that research literature was a primary source of evidence and research was used in decision-making. Peers and experience were also important sources of evidence. CNSs used the Internet extensively to consult research databases, online sources of evidence, and to contact peers about current practice. CNSs also gathered evidence from frontline nurses, healthcare team members, and families before decision-making. The choice of evidence often depended upon the type of question they were attempting to answer. Barriers cited by CNSs support previous research and included lack of time, resources, and receptivity at clinical and organizational levels. Facilitators included peers, organizational support, and advanced education.
CNSs in Canada have advanced education and clinical expertise and many are employed in roles that permeate organizational management and clinical nursing care. It is suggested that qualitative research in naturalized settings that investigates the role of CNSs in relation to the dissemination of evidence in nursing practice needs attention.
Researchers and theorists working in the field of knowledge translation point to the importance of organizational context in influencing research utilization. The study purpose was to compare research utilization in two different healthcare contexts--Canadian civilian and United States (US) Army settings. Contrary to the investigators' expectations, research utilization scores were lower in US Army settings, after controlling for potential predictors. In-service attendance, library access, belief suspension, gender, and years of experience interacted significantly with the setting (military or civilian) for research utilization. Predictors of research utilization common to both settings were attitude and belief suspension. Predictors in the US Army setting were trust and years of experience, and in the Canadian civilian setting were in-service attendance, time (organizational), research champion, and library access. While context is of central importance, individual and organizational predictors interact with context in important although not well-understood ways, and should not be ignored.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the learning that takes place in a research process of nursing students when writing their Bachelor's theses and to describe the learning outcomes in utilizing research knowledge. The sample comprised nursing students from a Finnish polytechnic. All of them worked with their Bachelor's theses. The data were collected by a questionnaire constructed for this study and 257 nursing students participated in the study. The data were analysed by SPSS 10.0 software. The students knew the steps of the research process moderately well. Most of the students responded that research results had been implemented in nursing practice. More than half of the students found the attitudes towards research positive in their clinical placements. Students' self-evaluation of learning outcomes was positive and they felt able to use research knowledge. The results indicated improving learning outcomes during the working process of the Bachelor's thesis. Working with the Bachelor's thesis is an effective way to lead the students to use research knowledge. The results are useful in guiding the students through their Bachelor's theses as well as in developing the curriculum and working life.