The importance of leadership to influence nurses' use of clinical guidelines has been well documented. However, little is known about how to develop and evaluate leadership interventions for guideline use.
The purpose of this study was to pilot a leadership intervention designed to influence nurses' use of guideline recommendations when caring for patients with diabetic foot ulcers in home care nursing. This paper reports on the feasibility of implementing the study protocol, the trial findings related to nursing process outcomes, and leadership behaviors.
A mixed methods pilot study was conducted with a post-only cluster randomized controlled trial and descriptive qualitative interviews. Four units were randomized to control or experimental groups. Clinical and management leadership teams participated in a 12-week leadership intervention (workshop, teleconferences). Participants received summarized chart audit data, identified goals for change, and created a team leadership action. Criteria to assess feasibility of the protocol included: design, intervention, measures, and data collection procedures. For the trial, chart audits compared differences in nursing process outcomes.
8-item nursing assessments score. Secondary outcome: 5-item score of nursing care based on goals for change identified by intervention participants. Qualitative interviews described leadership behaviors that influenced guideline use.
Conducting this pilot showed some aspects of the study protocol were feasible, while others require further development. Trial findings observed no significant difference in the primary outcome. A significant increase was observed in the 5-item score chosen by intervention participants (p = 0.02). In the experimental group more relations-oriented leadership behaviors, audit and feedback and reminders were described as leadership strategies.
Findings suggest that a leadership intervention has the potential to influence nurses' use of guideline recommendations, but further work is required to refine the intervention and outcome measures. A taxonomy of leadership behaviors is proposed to inform future research.
Growing use of information and communication technology (ICT) demands have caused a need for nursing to strengthen the knowledge, skills and competences related to ICT in health (eHealth) and define its versatile roles. The Finnish Nurses Association (FNA) named a group of eHealth experts from various professional fields that are closely connected to nursing e.g. nursing practice, higher education, nursing research and administration. The main purpose was to describe nurses' contribution to the national strategy concerning eHealth development and implementation in health and social care. The group searched for answers, discussed strategic issues, wrote drafts, and sent texts for open commentary circles. The chosen themes of the eHealth strategies deal with the role of the client, nursing practice, ethical aspects education and eHealth competences, nursing leadership, knowledge management and research and development. The article describes the strategic work and the structure of eHealth strategy of nurses in Finland.
Electronic Patient Record (EPR) TT- 2000+ was implemented in Hospital Orton in January 2008. The software TT 2000+ was implemented in 2005. TT- 2000+ enables structured and specifically defined documentation in clinical nursing practice.
To describe the use of pain management documentation into TT- 2000+ and how the results can be implemented into clinical nursing practice. Can the results be used in development of clinical nursing practice? How does the evaluation of pain reflect into the number of documentation?
The data were obtained from documentations made in May 2008 from patient groups that had undergone total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty.
The number of total hip arthroplasty patients was 60 and total knee arthroplasty patients 51. The total number of pain documentations with the group of THA's was 992 and with TKA's 913.
Due to the circumstances in May 2008, the numbers of documentation into the TT- 2000+ are inadequate. Therefore, the documentation needs further research within a longer period of time. Undefined and unified way of maintaining and recording should be considered in processing information in clinical practice.
To improve an early intervention (EI) triggered by the Adolescents' Substance Use Measurement (ADSUME) as a method to prevent substance abuse among adolescents. We assessed how ADSUME and EI work in practice and how EI could be improved.
School health nurses (n=10) tested ADSUME and EI on 14- to 18-year-old adolescents (n=228). Six months later, these nurses and their professional partners were invited to assess EI in focus group interviews.
Four focus group interviews involving a total of 24 nurses and partners were implemented. Interview data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis.
ADSUME concretized assessment, activated profound dialogue, and proved to be an important part of EI. It was important to assess the adolescent's resources in addition to the ADSUME score. EI worked well in confidential dialogues after the adolescent and the PHN reached a consensus on the level of concern about the adolescent's substance use. The recommended EI enabled individual brief intervention in all four stages of substance use, from abstinence or experimental use to hazardous use.
EI was improved practically, and the contents of the intervention were reformulated. It is important to integrate EI with the preventive efforts of the school.
To explore which knowledge sources newly graduated nurses' use in clinical decision-making and why and how they are used.
In spite of an increased educational focus on skills and competencies within evidence-based practice, newly graduated nurses' ability to use components within evidence-based practice with a conscious and reflective use of research evidence has been described as being poor. To understand why, it is relevant to explore which other knowledge sources are used. This may shed light on why research evidence is sparsely used and ultimately inform approaches to strengthen the knowledgebase used in clinical decision-making.
Ethnographic study using participant-observation and individual semistructured interviews of nine Danish newly graduated nurses in medical and surgical hospital settings.
Newly graduates use of knowledge sources was described within three main structures: 'other', 'oneself' and 'gut feeling'. Educational preparation, transition into clinical practice and the culture of the setting influenced the knowledge sources used. The sources ranged from overt easily articulated knowledge sources to covert sources that were difficult to articulate. The limited articulation of certain sources inhibited the critical reflection on the reasoning behind decisions. Reflection is a prerequisite for an evidence-based practice where decisions should be transparent in order to consider if other evidentiary sources could be used.
Although there is a complexity and variety to knowledge sources used, there is an imbalance with the experienced nurse playing a key role, functioning both as predominant source and a role model as to which sources are valued and used in clinical decision-making. If newly graduates are to be supported in an articulate and reflective use of a variety of sources, they have to be allocated to experienced nurses who model a reflective, articulate and balanced use of knowledge sources.
Nurses' clinical reasoning is of great importance for the delivery of safe and efficient care. Pressure ulcer prevention allows a variety of aspects within nursing to be viewed.
The aim of this study was to describe both the process and the content of nurses' reasoning during care planning at different nursing homes, using pressure ulcer prevention as an example.
A qualitative research design was chosen.
Seven different nursing homes within one community were included.
Eleven registered nurses were interviewed.
The methods used were think-aloud technique, protocol analysis and qualitative content analysis. Client simulation illustrating transition was used. The case used for care planning was in three parts covering the transition from hospital until 3 weeks in the nursing home.
Most nurses in this study conducted direct and indirect reasoning in a wide range of areas in connection with pressure ulcer prevention. The reasoning focused different parts of the nursing process depending on part of the case. Complex assertations as well as strategies aiming to reduce cognitive strain were rare. Nurses involved in direct nursing care held a broader reasoning than consultant nurses. Both explanations and actions based on older ideas and traditions occurred.
Reasoning concerning pressure ulcer prevention while care planning was dominated by routine thinking. Knowing the person over a period of time made a more complex reasoning possible. The nurses' experience, knowledge together with how close to the elderly the nurses work seem to be important factors that affect the content of reasoning.
Tele-technology in the health care system is prognosed to be able to produce better health, better care at lower cost (Triple aim). This paper will discuss the validity of this prognosis, which in many ways is considered as some sort of diagnosis of the conditions concerning triple aim in relation to Tele-technology. Tele-technology in the health care system covers three different types of technological settings: telecare, telehealth and telemedicine. This paper will disclose the different meanings of telecare, telehealth and telemedicine and discusses how nursing informatics can accomplish and gain from this disclosure. Theoretically and methodologically the paper is based on post-phenomenological readings and reflections, where use, practice, users, participants, values and knowledge systems are addressed on an equal level in order to understand technology and how we act appropriately through and with technology.
Nursing decision making was a focus of the Province-Wide Nursing Project (PWNP), a 3-year project to promote best nursing practice. In much of the growing literature on nursing decision making, it is assumed that there are differences in the way RNs and RPNs make decisions. However, there is little scientific evidence to support this assumption. The RN and RPN decision making across settings questionnaire was completed by nurses employed in the 23 agencies of the 4 Participating Complexes taking part in the project. The survey questions were subjected to factor analysis and reduced to five factors. Results revealed measurable differences between the way that RNs and RPNs made decisions. Both RNs and RPNs reported making decisions frequently and experiencing little difficulty in making them. However, there were statistically significant differences in the frequency with which RNs and RPNs perceived they made decisions and the difficulty they found in making them. To plan effective health care, it is important to take account of the strengths of different health care workers. There is a need for further research to investigate the reasons behind the differences revealed in these findings.