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Babies and bacteria: phage typing, bacteriologists, and the birth of infection control.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165516
Source
Bull Hist Med. 2006;80(4):733-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Kathryn Hillier
Author Affiliation
Unit for History and Philosophy of Science, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. k.hillier@science.usyd.edu.au
Source
Bull Hist Med. 2006;80(4):733-61
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Australasia
Bacteriophage Typing - history
Canada - epidemiology
Cross Infection - history - microbiology
Great Britain - epidemiology
History, 20th Century
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Infection Control - history - methods
Nurseries, Hospital - history - statistics & numerical data
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
During the 1950s, Staphylococcus aureus became a major source of hospital infections and death, particularly in neonates. This situation was further complicated by the fact that Staphylococcus quickly gained resistance to most antibiotics. Controlling these infections was a pressing concern for hospital workers, especially bacteriologists who tackled it through the use of a new epidemiologic tool: phage typing. This article argues that during the mid- to late 1950s a series of staphylococcal hospital and nursery epidemics united phage typers, brought international recognition to the usefulness of their technique, and, in the process, contributed to the establishment of the new field of infection control. Through the use of this new tool, phage typers established themselves as experts in infection control and, in some places, became essential members of newly formed infection-control committees. The nursery epidemics represent a particularly important test for phage typing and infection control, for this staphylococcal strain (80/81) was especially virulent and spread rapidly beyond the hospital to the wider community. The epidemiologic information provided by phage typers was vital for devising practical advice on how to control this deadly strain of Staphylococcus and also for transforming the role of the hospital bacteriologist from mere technician into infection-control expert.
PubMed ID
17242553 View in PubMed
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Breast-feeding: are hospitals encouraging new mothers to reach for the bottle?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219646
Source
Leadersh Health Serv. 1994 Jan-Feb;3(1):4
Publication Type
Article
Author
J. Newman
Author Affiliation
Doctors Hospital, Toronto.
Source
Leadersh Health Serv. 1994 Jan-Feb;3(1):4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding
Canada
Female
Humans
Industry
Infant Care - standards
Infant, Newborn
Nurseries, Hospital - standards
PubMed ID
10132052 View in PubMed
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Campylobacter enterocolitis in a neonatal nursery.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240430
Source
J Infect Dis. 1984 Jun;149(6):874-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1984
Author
M A Karmali
B. Norrish
H. Lior
B. Heyes
A. Monteath
H. Montgomery
Source
J Infect Dis. 1984 Jun;149(6):874-7
Date
Jun-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Campylobacter Infections - genetics - transmission
Campylobacter fetus - classification - isolation & purification
Canada
Cross Infection
Diarrhea - etiology - genetics
Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous - etiology
Feces - microbiology
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Labor, Obstetric
Male
Nurseries, Hospital
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Serotyping
Abstract
During a five-day period, four neonates in a neonatal nursery developed Campylobacter entercolitis. Investigations suggested that cross-infection or common-source infection were unlikely and that the neonates acquired their infection during delivery from their respective mothers, three of whom were also found to harbour Campylobacter jejuni in their stools. This suggestion was confirmed with use of the Lior serotyping system in a blind fashion. Each neonate was infected with a different serotype, and each of the three culture-positive mothers had the same serotype as her neonate. Examination of multiple colonies from the stools of five individuals showed that each was likely to have been infected by only one serotype. The presenting clinical features in the four neonates provides further evidence that neonatal Campylobacter entercolitis typically manifests as a benign, self-limited, nonfebrile, diarrheal illness with bloody stools.
PubMed ID
6736679 View in PubMed
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Care of the newborn in perinatal units in New Brunswick.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature236727
Source
CMAJ. 1986 Aug 1;135(3):186-7, 189-90, 192
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-1986
Source
CMAJ. 1986 Aug 1;135(3):186-7, 189-90, 192
Date
Aug-1-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Humans
Infant Care - standards
Infant, Newborn
New Brunswick
Nurseries, Hospital - standards
Notes
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1984 Aug 1;131(3):193-66378348
Cites: J Pediatr. 1962 Nov;61:686-9213999476
Cites: J Pediatr. 1986 Apr;108(4):616-93514830
PubMed ID
3730976 View in PubMed
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Care of the newborn in perinatal units in New Brunswick.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature237078
Source
CMAJ. 1986 May 1;134(9):1009-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-1986
Author
K K Malhotra
Source
CMAJ. 1986 May 1;134(9):1009-11
Date
May-1-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Baths - methods
Breast Feeding
Hand Disinfection
Humans
Infant, Newborn
New Brunswick
Nurseries, Hospital
Ophthalmia Neonatorum - prevention & control
Postnatal Care - methods
Questionnaires
Silver Nitrate - therapeutic use
Vitamin K - therapeutic use
Abstract
A survey of 23 perinatal units in New Brunswick hospitals was conducted by means of a mailed questionnaire to determine the type of care provided to newborns. The results showed various degrees of conformity with published guidelines for the care of newborns. Deficiencies were noted in several areas of care: failing to give or improperly giving vitamin K1 prophylaxis (in 7 of the units), flushing the eyes after silver nitrate prophylaxis (in 10), using hexachlorophene to bathe newborns (in 11) and delaying the first feeding up to 12 hours (in 3). It is essential to provide appropriate support to newborns as they adjust to a new environment and to ensure that alternative practices are in keeping with current scientific knowledge.
Notes
Cites: J Pediatr. 1984 Dec;105(6):880-46502336
Cites: J Pediatr. 1973 Jun;82(6):972-54702916
Cites: Am J Dis Child. 1983 Jun;137(6):601-26846298
Cites: Lancet. 1983 May 14;1(8333):1089-906133116
Cites: Lancet. 1982 Aug 28;2(8296):460-36125638
Cites: Thromb Haemost. 1980 Dec 19;44(3):159-607466743
Cites: JAMA. 1980 Nov 21;244(20):2291-37431552
Cites: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1979 May 31;320:426-35287398
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1977 Aug 6;117(3):223-6328126
Cites: Lancet. 1977 Apr 16;1(8016):852-367352
Cites: Am J Dis Child. 1976 Mar;130(3):247-50769534
Cites: Pediatrics. 1975 Sep;56(3):368-73808790
Cites: Pediatrics. 1975 Mar;55(3):422-41143981
Cites: Arch Neurol. 1975 May;32(5):320-51137506
Cites: J Am Med Assoc. 1951 Apr 7;145(14):1052-514803306
Cites: Lancet. 1971 Aug 7;2(7719):296-74104980
Cites: Pediatrics. 1972 Aug;50(2):229-354625618
Cites: Am J Infect Control. 1984 Apr;12(2):76-826563870
PubMed ID
3697868 View in PubMed
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[Children in the hospital. Improved contact in new mother-infant section in S√łnderborg]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature39222
Source
Sygeplejersken. 1986 May 7;86(19):12-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-7-1986

53 records – page 1 of 6.