AIMS: To study, within municipal care and county council care, (1) chief nurses' and registered nurses' perceptions of patient nutritional status assessment and nutritional assessment/screening tools, (2) registered nurses' perceptions of documentation in relation to nutrition and advantages and disadvantages with a documentation model. BACKGROUND: Chief nurses and registered nurses have a responsibility to identify malnourished patients and those at risk of malnutrition. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this descriptive study, 15 chief nurses in municipal care and 27 chief nurses in county council care were interviewed by telephone via a semi-structured interview guide. One hundred and thirty-one registered nurses (response rate 72%) from 14 municipalities and 28 hospital wards responded to the questionnaire, all in one county. RESULTS: According to the majority of chief nurses and registered nurses, only certain patients were assessed, on admission and/or during the stay. Nutritional assessment/screening tools and nutritional guidelines were seldom used. Most of the registered nurses documented nausea/vomiting, ability to eat and drink, diarrhoea and difficulties in chewing and swallowing, while energy intake and body mass index were rarely documented. However, the majority documented their judgement about the patient's nutritional condition. The registered nurses perceived the VIPS model (Swedish nursing documentation model) as a guideline as well as a model obstructing the information exchange. Differences were found between nurses (chief nurses/registered nurses) in municipal care and county council care, but not between registered nurses and their chief nurses. CONCLUSIONS: All patients are not nutritionally assessed and important nutritional parameters are not documented. Nutritionally compromised patients may remain unidentified and not properly cared for. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Assessment and documentation of the patients' nutritional status should be routinely performed in a more structured way in both municipal care and county council care. There is a need for increased nutritional nursing knowledge.
Emerging evidence focuses on the importance of the role of leadership in successfully transferring research evidence into practice. However, little is known about the interaction between managerial leaders and clinical leaders acting as facilitators (internal facilitators [IFs]) in this implementation process.
To describe the interaction between managerial leaders and IFs and how this enabled or hindered the facilitation process of implementing urinary incontinence guideline recommendations in a local context in settings that provide long-term care to older people.
Semistructured interviews with 105 managers and 22 IFs, collected for a realist process evaluation across four European countries informed this study. An interpretive data analysis unpacks interactions between managerial leaders and IFs.
This study identified three themes that were important in the interactions between managerial leaders and IFs that could hinder or support the implementation process: "realising commitment"; "negotiating conditions"; and "encouragement to keep momentum going." The findings revealed that the continuous reciprocal relationships between IFs and managerial leaders influenced the progress of implementation, and could slow the process down or disrupt it. A metaphor of crossing a turbulent river by the "building of a bridge" emerged as one way of understanding the findings.
Our findings illuminate a neglected area, the effects of relationships between key staff on implementing evidence into practice. Relational aspects of managerial and clinical leadership roles need greater consideration when planning guideline implementation and practice change. In order to support implementation, staff assigned as IFs as well as stakeholders like managers at all levels of an organisation should be engaged in realising commitment, negotiating conditions, and keeping momentum going. Thus, communication is crucial between all involved.
This article describes how the policy to emphasize noninstitutional care is reflected in home care service strategies and work characteristics as well as the work motivation of home care staff in Finland. The data were gathered through a questionnaire answered by 312 employees in home care services and 22 social welfare and primary health care administrators. The methods of analysis used were cross-tabulations, one-way analysis of variance, and regression analysis. According to the results, institutional care had been reduced too fast and home care services had not been developed sufficiently. Most of the staff reported that their work had changed considerably. Although their work had become more interesting and more independent, over one third of the employees felt that the pressure of work had become unbearable and their responsibility was too heavy. The views of the home care staff differed from those of the administrators regarding the change strategies that had been carried out. The majority of the staff were moderately or highly motivated. Thirty-four percent of the variance of work motivation was explained mainly by work characteristics. More attention should be paid to the development of home care services before institutional care is reduced. Training the staff and informing them about the planned reform should not be neglected.
This paper examines the utility and sustainability of a clinical pathway for treating nursing home residents with pneumonia from the perspective of nursing administrators and medical directors in Ontario, Canada. The discussion includes a comparison of the perspectives of the administrators and the nursing staff (reported in part I of this article).
A qualitative case study design was used.
Data were collected from 6 nursing homes in Southern Ontario that were drawn from a larger randomized controlled trial of a clinical pathway to help identify, diagnose, and manage cases of nursing home-acquired pneumonia.
Six interviews were conducted with nursing administrators and 2 with medical directors (1 per facility). Key themes were identified in the interview data using the template style of analysis described by Miller and Crabtree.
Administrators were in favor of using a clinical pathway for identifying and treating pneumonia in nursing home residents. Participants thought that during the study residents with pneumonia received better and more timely care, and that nurses' clinical skills, knowledge, and confidence had improved. In comparison with views expressed by nurses and medical directors in the same facilities, nursing administrators tended to report less clinical training and staff support were required to successfully implement the pathway.
Even though nurses and administrators strongly support the use of a pneumonia clinical pathway in nursing homes, implementation plans should be tailored to individual facilities and be informed by the perspectives of both administrators and staff.
Author Affiliations: Department of Nursing Science (Ms Tuominen and Drs Lundgren-Laine and Salanterä) and Biostatistics Department (Mr Teperi) University of Turku; Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine (Ms Tuominen) and Development Unit (Dr Salanterä), Turku University Hospital; and Central Finland Health Care District, Jyväskylä (Dr Lundgren-Laine), Finland.
The aim of this study was to identify nurse managers' daily tasks during the rescheduling of sudden nursing staff absences by comparing two techniques: a paper-based system as phone calls and emails or information technology-based staffing systems. In addition, it is intended to evaluate the usability of information technology-based staffing solutions and evaluate estimated cost savings by using hospital permanent staff to cover sudden absences. A quasi-experimental pretest and posttest one-group study design was used to evaluate nurse managers' (n = 61) daily tasks (n = 5800) during rescheduling nursing staff sudden absences (n = 2628); furthermore, we engaged in observations and provided estimates of cost savings generated by our proposed intervention. The number of nurse manager tasks during rescheduling decreased significantly (P
BACKGROUND: Gender can be seen as a construction in which history, culture and social relation are central. Thus, the construction remains strong can be explained by the fact that the existing conceptions about gender are continually passed on. It is not known how conceptions about gender in the context of Swedish health care are expressed by head nurses or what significance the conceptions have for their leadership. AIM: To study head nurses' statements about their conceptions of gender and what significance these conceptions have in carrying out their work. METHODS: Thematic interviews were held with 36 head nurses, and the contents of the transcribed interviews were analysed. RESULTS: The results showed conceptions about men's direct and women's roundabout ways of communicating. Statements were also made concerning how men are oriented towards technical matters and women towards relationships, and how men are expected to show what they can do to a greater extent than women. These conceptions have an effect on head nurses in their work, as they are expected to live up to them. As we wished to obtain variation in the respondents' statements about gender, we conducted an interview study. Hence, the transferability of the findings is a question of conceptualization, and the conceptions we recorded cannot be seen as representative for all head nurses. The results imply, however, that greater awareness about conceptions of gender may promote greater equality in women's and men's careers and allow greater freedom to head nurses to do what they themselves feel they should do instead of what they are expected to do.
The integration (routinizing and sustaining) of evidence-based practice (EBP) into hospital management is a key element for improving patient safety and ensuring better patient outcomes. Hospital managers and clinical leaders play crucial roles in this integration. Interactions between leaders and integration context influence the improvement's quality, but leader-based actions that are effective for improving nursing practice remain unclear. The relationship between leaders could also either hinder or enable this implementation process. The aim of this study was to generate a theory about patterns of leader behavior that leaders are engaged in when attempting to integrate EBP in a clinical setting. We used a classic grounded theory methodology to generate a substantive EBP theory. In this study, through participant observation, we observed 63 nurses (15 specialist, 39 registered, and 9 assistant nurses). From these, five ward leaders (two head nurses, one assistant head nurse, and two teaching nurses) participated in individual interviews, and 18 clinical nurses participated in four focus groups. "Creating room for EBP" emerged as a theory for explaining the way in which the leaders attempted to resolve their main concern: How to achieve EBP treatment and care with tight resources and without overextending the nurses. Creating room for EBP encompasses a process of interactions, including positioning for, executing, and interpreting responses to EBP.