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Accumulation, organ distribution, and excretion kinetics of ²4¹Am in Mayak Production Association workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116778
Source
Health Phys. 2013 Mar;104(3):313-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Klara G Suslova
Alexandra B Sokolova
Alexander V Efimov
Scott C Miller
Author Affiliation
Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia. suslova@subi.su
Source
Health Phys. 2013 Mar;104(3):313-24
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aerosols
Aged
Americium - chemistry - pharmacokinetics
Case-Control Studies
Female
Humans
Industry
Kinetics
Liver Diseases - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Reactors - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Organ Specificity
Plutonium - chemistry - pharmacokinetics
Russia
Tissue Distribution
Abstract
Americium-241 (²4¹Am) is the second most significant radiation hazard after ²³?Pu at some of the Mayak Production Association facilities. This study summarizes current data on the accumulation, distribution, and excretion of americium compared with plutonium in different organs from former Mayak PA workers. Americium and plutonium were measured in autopsy and bioassay samples and correlated with the presence or absence of chronic disease and with biological transportability of the aerosols encountered at different workplaces. The relative accumulation of ²4¹Am was found to be increasing in the workers over time. This is likely from ²4¹Pu that increases with time in reprocessed fuel and from the increased concentrations of ²4¹Am and ²4¹Pu in inhaled alpha-active aerosols. While differences were observed in lung retention with exposures to different industrial compounds with different transportabilities (i.e., dioxide and nitrates), there were no significant differences in lung retention between americium and plutonium within each transportability group. In the non-pulmonary organs, the highest ratios of ²4¹Am/²4¹Am + SPu were observed in the skeleton. The relative ratios of americium in the skeleton versus liver were significantly greater than for plutonium. The relative amounts of americium and plutonium found in the skeleton compared with the liver were even greater in workers with documented chronic liver diseases. Excretion rates of ²4¹Am in ‘‘healthy’’ workers were estimated using bioassay and autopsy data. The data suggest that impaired liver function leads to reduced hepatic ²4¹Am retention, leading to increased ²4¹Am excretion.
PubMed ID
23361427 View in PubMed
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Concept of optimisation of the radiation protection system in the nuclear sector: management of individual cancer risks and providing targeted health care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166251
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2006 Dec;26(4):361-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
V K Ivanov
A F Tsyb
A M Agapov
A P Panfilov
O V Kaidalov
A I Gorski
M A Maksioutov
Y V Suspitsin
V I Vaizer
Author Affiliation
Medical Radiological Research Centre of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 4 Korolev Street, Obninsk 249036, Russia.
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2006 Dec;26(4):361-74
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Burden
Delivery of Health Care - organization & administration
Humans
Incidence
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors - statistics & numerical data
Quality Assurance, Health Care - organization & administration
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - statistics & numerical data
Radiation Protection - methods
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
The paper discusses the provision of targeted health care to nuclear workers in Russia based on radiation-epidemiological estimates of cancer risks. Cancer incidence rates are analysed for the workers of the Institute of Physical Power Engineering (the first nuclear installation in the world) who were subjected to individual dosimetric monitoring from 1950 to 2002. The value of excess relative risk for solid cancers was found to be ERR Gy(-1) = 0.24 (95% CI: -4.22; 7.96). It has been shown that 81.8% of the persons covered by individual dosimetric monitoring have potential attributive risk up to 5%, and the risk is more than 10% for 3.7% of the workers. Among the detected cancer cases, 73.5% of the individuals show an attributive risk up to 5% and the risk is in excess of 10% for 3.9% of the workers. Principles for the provision of targeted health care, given voluntary health insurance, are outlined.
PubMed ID
17146121 View in PubMed
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Development of an improved dose reconstruction system for the Techa River population affected by the operation of the Mayak Production Association.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168551
Source
Radiat Res. 2006 Jul;166(1 Pt 2):255-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
M O Degteva
M I Vorobiova
E I Tolstykh
N B Shagina
E A Shishkina
L R Anspaugh
B A Napier
N G Bougrov
V A Shved
E E Tokareva
Author Affiliation
Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Medgorodok, 454076 Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation.
Source
Radiat Res. 2006 Jul;166(1 Pt 2):255-70
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Burden
Humans
Nuclear Reactors - statistics & numerical data
Organ Specificity
Proportional Hazards Models
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods - statistics & numerical data
Radioisotopes - analysis
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Risk Assessment - methods - trends
Russia - epidemiology
Survivors - statistics & numerical data
Whole-Body Counting - methods
Abstract
The Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS) has been developed to provide estimates of dose received by approximately 30,000 members of the Extended Techa River Cohort (ETRC). Members of the ETRC were exposed beginning in 1949 to significant levels of external and internal (mainly from (90)Sr) dose but at low to moderate dose rates. Members of this cohort are being studied in an effort to test the hypothesis that exposure at low to moderate dose rates has the same ability to produce stochastic health effects as exposure at high dose rates. The current version of the TRDS is known as TRDS-2000 and is the subject of this paper. The estimated doses from (90)Sr are supported strongly by approximately 30,000 measurements made with a tooth beta-particle counter, measurements of bones collected at autopsy, and approximately 38,000 measurements made with a special whole-body counter that detects the bremsstrahlung from (90)Y. The median doses to the red bone marrow and the bone surface are 0.21 and 0.37 Gy, respectively. The maximum doses to the red bone marrow and bone surface are 2.0 and 5.2 Gy, respectively. Distributions of dose to other organs are provided and are lower than the values given above. Directions for future work are discussed.
PubMed ID
16808612 View in PubMed
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Down's syndrome in the Lothian region of Scotland--1978 to 1989.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59787
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):267-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
C N Ramsay
P M Ellis
H. Zealley
Author Affiliation
Lothian Health Board, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, UK.
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):267-72
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Down Syndrome - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Maternal Age
Nuclear Reactors - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Pregnancy, High-Risk
Scotland - epidemiology
Ukraine
Abstract
A study of Down's syndrome in Lothian for the years 1978-1989 revealed a significantly higher than expected incidence of cases in 1987. The increased incidence was particularly significant among women aged 35 years or more. The increase could not be attributed to demographic changes on birth rates or to the age distribution of the women concerned. A temporal association between the cluster of cases and the events at Chernobyl in April 1986 was demonstrated. However, according to current understanding, there is no biologically plausible explanation to link the 2 events, given the reported levels of radioactive fallout in the Lothian region, resulting from the Chernobyl disaster. An explanation for the increased incidence of Down's syndrome in 1987 remains outstanding.
PubMed ID
1832978 View in PubMed
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The effects of the Chernobyl explosion on induced abortion in Italy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65118
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):243-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
A. Spinelli
J F Osborn
Author Affiliation
Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):243-7
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Induced - statistics & numerical data
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Italy - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
Four regression models have been fitted to data of the monthly number of induced abortions in Italy between January 1984 and April 1986, in order to predict the number which would have occurred in the 5 months following the Chernobyl explosion. In model I the average number of abortions per day in each month was the dependent variable and calendar months, a linear time trend and previous month's value were the independent variables. Model II included a quadratic time trend term in addition to the independent variables used in model I. Models III and IV were like models I and II except that the dependent variable was the average number of abortions per working day in each month and the effect of the previous month's value was omitted. The 4 models all implied that an excess number of abortions were performed in the 5 months following the Chernobyl accident. The mean daily excess was estimated to be 28 and 52 per day for models I and II and the mean excess per working day was estimated to be 20 and 30 by models III and IV, respectively. Clearly the estimated magnitude of the excess depends on whether the quadratic time trend is included among the explanatory variables, but these results imply that the excess is unlikely to be merely due to chance.
PubMed ID
1912380 View in PubMed
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Frequency of trisomy 21 in Germany before and after the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59788
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):255-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
K. Sperling
J. Pelz
R D Wegner
I. Schulzke
E. Struck
Author Affiliation
Institut für Humangenetik, Heubnerweg, Berlin, Germany.
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):255-62
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - diagnosis - epidemiology
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Berlin - epidemiology
Down Syndrome - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Fetal Diseases - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant, Newborn
Nuclear Reactors - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Prenatal Diagnosis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Ukraine
Abstract
For Berlin (West) the rate of trisomy 21 among newborn and all prenatally diagnosed cases can be almost completely recorded, including the maternal age distribution. During the 9-year-period from 1980 and 1988 the average number of trisomy 21 per month was about 2, following a Poisson distribution. A significant increase (P less than 0.01) was observed in January 1987, exactly 9 months after the Chernobyl accident. In a supraregional study based on greater than 30,000 prenatal diagnoses performed in 1986, no significant effect could be observed. However, the highest rates of trisomy 21 were observed in the more heavily contaminated, southern part of Germany. The majority of these fetuses were conceived during the period of greatest radioactive exposure. The data are discussed with respect to the effect of low-dose radiation around the time of conception on the induction of non-disjunction in man.
PubMed ID
1832977 View in PubMed
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Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature227242
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):225-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
V. Odlind
A. Ericson
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Uppsala, Academic Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):225-8
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Legal - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Nuclear Reactors - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Sweden - epidemiology
Ukraine
Abstract
The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden.
PubMed ID
1912377 View in PubMed
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Influence of alpha and gamma radiations and non-radiation risk factors on the incidence of malignant liver tumors among Mayak PA workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167552
Source
Health Phys. 2006 Oct;91(4):296-310
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Z B Tokarskaya
G V Zhuntova
B R Scott
V F Khokhryakov
Z D Belyaeva
E K Vasilenko
V A Syrchikov
Author Affiliation
Southern Ural Biophysics Institute, P.O. Box 456780, Ozyorsk, Russia.
Source
Health Phys. 2006 Oct;91(4):296-310
Date
Oct-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alpha Particles
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Female
Gamma Rays
Humans
Incidence
Liver Neoplasms - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Radiation Dosage
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
This Mayak worker-based study focuses on evaluating possible associations between malignant liver cancers and chronic alpha irradiation, chronic gamma irradiation, and non-radiation risk factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, viral hepatitis, chemical exposure, and chronic digestive diseases). This is the first multivariate study related to liver cancer among Mayak workers. The study was performed using the nested, case-control approach and includes 44 cases of malignant liver tumors diagnosed from 1972 to 1999, and 111 matched controls. Adjusted odds ratio (OR(ad)) was evaluated relative to a group of workers with alpha radiation doses to liver (D(alpha)) 2.0 Gy (corresponding (239)Pu body burden estimates >20.4 kBq) were significantly associated (p 2.0-5.0 Gy and was 62.5 (7.4, 500) for a group with D(alpha) > 5.0-16.9 Gy. The attributable risk (AR) was calculated as 82%. For HCC, O(Rad) was estimated as 8.4 (0.8, 85.3; p 2.0-9.3 Gy. For the indicated group, the AR was 14%. An association with high external gamma-ray doses (D(gamma)) to the total body was revealed for both HCC and for combined liver cancers when dose was treated as a continuous variable. However, we find no evidence that chronic low doses of gamma rays are associated with liver cancer occurrence. Cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) was not associated with either alpha- or gamma-ray exposure. As expected, an association between alcohol abuse and HCC was inferred [O(Rad) = 3.3 (1.2, 9); AR = 41%] but not for CHC or HAS.
PubMed ID
16966873 View in PubMed
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Legally induced abortions in Denmark after Chernobyl.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65119
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):229-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
L B Knudsen
Author Affiliation
Danish National Board of Health, Sundhedsstyrelsen, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):229-31
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Legal - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Fetal Death - epidemiology
Humans
Nuclear Reactors - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Ukraine
Abstract
During the months following the accident in Chernobyl, Denmark experienced an increasing rate of induced abortion, especially in regions with the largest measured increase in radiation. As the increase in radiation in Denmark was so low that almost no increased risk of birth defects was expected, the public debate and anxiety among the pregnant women and their husbands "caused" more fetal deaths in Denmark than the accident. This underlines the importance of public debate, the role of the mass media and of the way in which National Health authorities participate in this debate.
PubMed ID
1912378 View in PubMed
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The lesson of the Chernobyl disaster.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24959
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):219-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
G. Milhaud
Author Affiliation
Service de Médecine Nucléaire, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France.
Source
Biomed Pharmacother. 1991;45(6):219-20
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Leukemia, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors - statistics & numerical data
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology
Ukraine
Abstract
On April 26, 1986 a major nuclear disaster took place at 1 h 24 min local time, destroying the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl plant. Five years later the consequences of the disaster are still not fully known. Nevertheless the long term future of nuclear energy in the world is uncertain. Questions need to be answered by observing hard facts if emotional attitudes are not to prevail over reality. The reactor and its core were destroyed by an explosion, causing two radioactive jet emissions of iodine 131, followed by caesium 137. Both elements are mainly incorporated in the body via food. The Chernobyl disaster was a consequence of inadequate safety regulations and human error. Enforcement of strict regulations are likely to be highly effective in preventing a further catastrophe. However, governments should consider another possibility. What would be the consequences for public health if a terroristic act deliberately destroyed a nuclear power station?
PubMed ID
1912375 View in PubMed
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12 records – page 1 of 2.