This report examines the claim that Irish mortality in the second quarter (April-June) of 1986 increased due to the cloud of radioactive material released by the damaged reactor in Chernobyl. Over the period 1971-1987, based on date of registration, the death rates in the second quarter showed marked year to year variation often exceeding that expected on the basis of chance alone. In 1986 the percentage of annual deaths occurring between April and June, and the death rate itself, were both significantly higher than in most other years between 1981 and 1987. The 1986 figures were not however, significantly higher than those observed in years prior to 1981. Since the distribution of mortality by cause was not consistent with the hypothesis relating low level radiation to immediate mortality, and since causality cannot be inferred from a temporal association per se, the Chernobyl accident cannot be implicated in the excess mortality observed in the second quarter of 1986.
The children living in 4 regions of Russia contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe were investigated. The control group consisted of the children of 2 regions which did not undergo this influence. The investigations were made 1-3 years after the catastrophe took place. An increase of etiologically non-clear asthenic-vegetative disorders was determined in the regions of radiation contamination. They were observed mainly among the children who had light residual organic cerebral deficiency. The authors cannot exclude the impact of the psychogenic factors.
The aim of the present study was the observation of the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the population in low endemic goitre area after mass iodine prophylaxis after the Chernobyl catastrophe and the estimation of TSH and thyroid hormones secretion in this population. On the basis of the investigations carried out we could conclude that the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the population with confirmed endemic goitre is comparable to the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the healthy population. ATA occurrence in children after iodine prophylaxis could confirm the hypothesis that thyroglobulin immunity is higher after iodine intake. The lower T3 concentration observed in the group with antithyroid autoantibodies suggests that autoantibodies may be involved in the thyroid hormones synthesis or peripheral conversion of thyroid hormones.
The paper deals with one of the most urgent aspects of irradiation hygiene, namely assessment of risk for irradiation-induced cancers of the thyroid. A model is described to predict high mortality rates of thyroidal cancer in the population due to the catastrophe at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. With the model, life-time risk rates involving sex and age at the moment of irradiation, as well as an irradiation mode.
Residents of Vienna, Austria were whole-body counted for radiocesium content due to fallout deposited after the Chernobyl accident. Data for a 2-y period were compared with prior estimates of radiocesium body burden based on food consumption. Our results suggest that the prior estimates be revised and the rejection limit be increased by a factor of 2 for contaminated food.
The qualitative and quantitative parameters of hemopoiesis and immunocompetent cells were studied in 365 children in the early "iodine" and long-term periods after the accident. In accordance with primary response, a group consisting of 28 subjects with so-called "radiation injury" was distinguished. The early period was marked by unusual qualitative and quantitative hematological changes which, however, did not lead to the development of the hematological syndrome characteristic of acute radiation injury. Certain deviations that corresponded to somatic pathology were detectable at the late periods after the accident.
It was attempted to assess the incidence of thyroid diseases in Polish children born between 1980-1986, who at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster were 0-6 years old, or whose mothers were in the third trimester of pregnancy. 3071 children have been examined, 1772 girls and 1299 boys. The following were assessed in each child: the health status, the developmental level, the thyroid ultrasound examination, and the level of TSH, FT4, antithyroid antibodies ATM and ATGL in the blood serum. Disorders in thyroid morphology (abnormal echogenicity) have been found in 462 children (15%), almost twice as much in girls than in boys. Goiter has been recognized in 4.6% of all children, an abnormal echogenity in 5.4% and focal changes in 4.8%. 3.9% of children have been found to have a high level of ATM antibodies, and 8.7%--a high level of ATGL antibodies. Among 6 children, who had thyroidectomy, 2 children have been diagnosed to have ca papillary and 4 children--adenoma.
The results of experimental studies on the repeated exposure to radioiodine (131I) and nuclear fission products (NFP) are presented, the doses used being equal to those resulted in radiation disease under first and second input. The animals satisfactory withstood the repeated exposure. The residual injuries appeared slightly. The animals' state was satisfactory during 5 years. Blastomogenic effect of NFP was revealed in remote periods.
Little is known about long-term cancer risks following in utero radiation exposure. We evaluated the association between in utero radiation exposure and risk of solid cancer and leukemia mortality among 8,000 offspring, born from 1948-1988, of female workers at the Mayak Nuclear Facility in Ozyorsk, Russia. Mother's cumulative gamma radiation uterine dose during pregnancy served as a surrogate for fetal dose. We used Poisson regression methods to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of solid cancer and leukemia mortality associated with in utero radiation exposure and to quantify excess relative risks (ERRs) as a function of dose. Using currently available dosimetry information, 3,226 (40%) offspring were exposed in utero (mean dose = 54.5 mGy). Based on 75 deaths from solid cancers (28 exposed) and 12 (6 exposed) deaths from leukemia, in utero exposure status was not significantly associated with solid cancer: RR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.49; ERR/Gy = -0.1 (95% CI
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