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Health impacts of large releases of radionuclides. Internal exposure of populations to long-lived radionuclides released into the environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22302
Source
Ciba Found Symp. 1997;203:120-33; discussion 133-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
M I Balonov
Author Affiliation
Radioecology Department, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Ciba Found Symp. 1997;203:120-33; discussion 133-40
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation - psychology
Americas
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
England
Environmental Exposure
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Male
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Nuclear Reactors
Plutonium - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Power Plants
Psychophysiologic Disorders - etiology
Radiation Injuries - etiology
Radioactive Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Strontium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
USSR
Ukraine
Water Pollution - analysis
Whole-Body Counting
Abstract
This chapter discusses the events that led to the contamination of environments with the long-lived radionuclides of caesium, strontium and other elements, and to the internal exposure of populations living in contaminated areas. Among these events are radioactive releases into the river Techa from the Soviet nuclear weapons facility Mayak in 1949-1956, thermonuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s, the Kyshtim and Windscale accidents in 1957, and the Chernobyl and Tomsk-7 accidents in 1986 and 1993, respectively. Methods of environmental monitoring and individual internal dose monitoring of inhabitants are described. These are based on measuring the content of radionuclides not only in the air, drinking water and local food products, but also in humans using whole-body counters and analysing excreta and autopsy samples. The dynamics of internal exposure of people of different ages to radionuclides of caesium, strontium and plutonium from the environment are considered. Examples of radionuclide distributions in the environment, and of individual/collective internal doses and related medical effects are presented.
PubMed ID
9339314 View in PubMed
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