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Lung cancer mortality among male nuclear workers of the Mayak facilities in the former Soviet Union.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198202
Source
Radiat Res. 2000 Jul;154(1):3-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2000
Author
M. Kreisheimer
N A Koshurnikova
E. Nekolla
V F Khokhryakov
S A Romanow
M E Sokolnikov
N S Shilnikova
P V Okatenko
A M Kellerer
Author Affiliation
Radiobiological Institute, University of Munich, Germany.
Source
Radiat Res. 2000 Jul;154(1):3-11
Date
Jul-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alpha Particles - adverse effects
Cohort Studies
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Male
Models, Statistical
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - chemically induced - mortality
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Diseases - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Plutonium - toxicity
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
An analysis of lung cancer mortality in a cohort of 1,669 Mayak workers who started their employment in the plutonium and reprocessing plants between 1948 and 1958 has been carried out in terms of a relative risk model. Particular emphasis has been given to a discrimination of the effects of external gamma-ray exposure and internal alpha-particle exposure due to incorporated plutonium. This study has also used the information from a cohort of 2,172 Mayak reactor workers who were exposed only to external gamma rays. The baseline lung cancer mortality rate has not been taken from national statistics but has been derived from the cohort itself. For both alpha particles and gamma rays, the results of the analysis are consistent with linear dose dependences. The estimated excess relative risk per unit organ dose equivalent in the lung due to the plutonium alpha particles at age 60 equals, according to the present study, 0.6/Sv, with a radiation weighting factor of 20 for alpha particles. The 95% confidence range is 0.39/Sv to 1.0/Sv. For the gamma-ray component, the present analysis suggests an excess relative risk for lung cancer mortality at age 60 of 0.20/Sv, with, however, a large 95% confidence range of-0.04/Sv to 0.69/Sv.
PubMed ID
10856959 View in PubMed
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Past exposure to densely ionizing radiation leaves a unique permanent signature in the genome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185956
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 2003 May;72(5):1162-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
M Prakash Hande
Tamara V Azizova
Charles R Geard
Ludmilla E Burak
Catherine R Mitchell
Valentin F Khokhryakov
Evgeny K Vasilenko
David J Brenner
Author Affiliation
Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 2003 May;72(5):1162-70
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alpha Particles - adverse effects
Bone Marrow - radiation effects
Chromosome Aberrations
Chromosome Breakage
Chromosome Inversion
Chromosome Painting
Chromosomes, Human - radiation effects - ultrastructure
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5 - radiation effects - ultrastructure
Gamma Rays - adverse effects
Genome, Human
Humans
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects
Lymphocytes - pathology - radiation effects
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Plutonium - adverse effects
Radiation Dosage
Radiation, Ionizing
Reference Values
Russia
Time
Translocation, Genetic
USSR
Abstract
Speculation has long surrounded the question of whether past exposure to ionizing radiation leaves a unique permanent signature in the genome. Intrachromosomal rearrangements or deletions are produced much more efficiently by densely ionizing radiation than by chemical mutagens, x-rays, or endogenous aging processes. Until recently, such stable intrachromosomal aberrations have been very hard to detect, but a new chromosome band painting technique has made their detection practical. We report the detection and quantification of stable intrachromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of healthy former nuclear-weapons workers who were exposed to plutonium many years ago. Even many years after occupational exposure, more than half the blood cells of the healthy plutonium workers contain large (>6 Mb) intrachromosomal rearrangements. The yield of these aberrations was highly correlated with plutonium dose to the bone marrow. The control groups contained very few such intrachromosomal aberrations. Quantification of this large-scale chromosomal damage in human populations exposed many years earlier will lead to new insights into the mechanisms and risks of cytogenetic damage.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12679897 View in PubMed
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[Prevalence of aortal atherosclerosis in workers underwent occupational irradiation].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262442
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2014;(11):1-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
T V Azizova
K V Kuznetsova
M V Bannikova
M V Sumina
Ia P Bagaeva
E V Azizova
N P Fot'eva
L N Krupenina
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2014;(11):1-6
Date
2014
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Alpha Particles - adverse effects
Aortic Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Atherosclerosis - epidemiology - etiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Gamma Rays - adverse effects
Humans
Male
Medical Records
Middle Aged
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Prevalence
Radiation Dosage
Risk factors
Russia
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
The authors evaluated prevalence of aortal atherosclerosis in dependence on radiation and non-radiation factors in workers underwent occupational prolonged irradiation.The study included 22,377 workers of nuclear industry enterprise "Mayak", with verified diagnosis of aortal atherosclerosis. Up to 31th December 2008, a total of 1,840 aortal atherosclerosis cases were registered in the examinees group. Aortal atherosclerosis prevalence appeared to depend reliably on sex, age, smoking habit (in males), alcohol consumption (in males) and arterial hypertension. Findings are that aortal atherosclerosis prevalence was higher in males and females underwent external gamma-irradiation of total dose over 0.5 Gy, in males and females underwent internal alpha-irradiation from incorporated plutonium of total absorbed radiation dose in liver over 0.025 Gy. Thus, aortal atherosclerosis prevalence in workers underwent occupational irradiation de- pended both on radiational and non-radiational factors.
PubMed ID
25845141 View in PubMed
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Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282498
Source
Radiat Res. 2016 Jun;185(6):658-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
Harry Scherthan
Natalia Sotnik
Michel Peper
Gerrit Schrock
Tamara Azizova
Michael Abend
Source
Radiat Res. 2016 Jun;185(6):658-67
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - genetics
Alpha Particles - adverse effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Gamma Rays - adverse effects
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Russia
Telomere - genetics - radiation effects
Time Factors
Abstract
Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (=1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (=0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (~30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length.
PubMed ID
27340887 View in PubMed
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