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Characterization of 14C in Swedish light water reactors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156097
Source
Health Phys. 2008 Aug;95 Suppl 2:S110-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
Asa Magnusson
Per-Olof Aronsson
Klas Lundgren
Kristina Stenström
Author Affiliation
Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden. asa.magnusson@vattenfall.com
Source
Health Phys. 2008 Aug;95 Suppl 2:S110-21
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Carbon Radioisotopes - analysis
Humans
Nuclear Reactors
Power Plants
Pressure
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive Waste - analysis
Safety
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of 14C in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of 14C on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic 14C in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of 14C within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the 14C originating from production in the coolant. Of the 14C formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The 14C released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units.
PubMed ID
18617793 View in PubMed
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Uncertainties analysis of doses resulting from chronic inhalation of plutonium at the Mayak production association.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174341
Source
Health Phys. 2005 Jul;89(1):33-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
M P Krahenbuhl
J D Bess
J L Wilde
V V Vostrotin
K G Suslova
V F Khokhryakov
D M Slaughter
S C Miller
Author Affiliation
University of Utah, 50 So. Central Campus Drive, Rm 1206, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. mpk@nuclear.utah.edu
Source
Health Phys. 2005 Jul;89(1):33-45
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Inhalation
Air Pollutants, Occupational - pharmacokinetics
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Algorithms
Autopsy
Body Burden
Computer simulation
Humans
Models, Biological
Models, Statistical
Nuclear Reactors
Organ Specificity
Plutonium - administration & dosage - pharmacokinetics
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Reproducibility of Results
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Sensitivity and specificity
Time Factors
Whole-Body Counting - methods
Abstract
A method is presented to determine the uncertainties in the reported dose due to incorporated plutonium for the Mayak Worker Cohort. The methodology includes errors generated by both detection methods and modeling methods. To accomplish the task, the method includes classical statistics, Monte Carlo, perturbation, and reliability groupings. Uncertainties are reported in percent of reported dose as a function of total body burden. The cohort was initially sorted into six reliability groups, with "A" being the data set that the investigators are most confident is correct and "G" being the data set with the most ambiguous data. Categories were adjusted based on preliminary calculation of uncertainties using the sorting criteria. Specifically, the impact of transportability (the parameter used to describe the transport of plutonium from the lung to systemic organs) was underestimated, and the structure of the sort was reorganized to reflect the impact of transportability. The finalized categories are designated with Roman numerals I through V, with "I" being the most reliable. Excluding Category V (neither bioassay nor autopsy), the highest uncertainty in lung doses is for individuals from Category IV-which ranged from 90-375% for total body burdens greater than 10 Bq, along with work histories that indicated exposure to more than one transportability class. The smallest estimated uncertainties for lung doses were determined by autopsy. Category I has a 32-38% uncertainty in the lung dose for total body burdens greater than 1 Bq. First, these results provide a further definition and characterization of the cohort and, second, they provide uncertainty estimates for these plutonium exposure categories.
PubMed ID
15951690 View in PubMed
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