The authors provide the results of long-term investigations of the consequences of environmental pollution from the military nuclear plant in the Southern Urals. Altogether 28,100 individuals who received substantial doses of external and internal radiation in the Techa riverside in the early fifties were entered into the study. The increase in the leukemia incidence as compared with unexposed controls has been confirmed on a statistical basis. The majority of excess cases of leukemia were recorded within the 5th to the 20th year after irradiation and may be attributed to the acute and chronic granulocytic types. The level of leukemia risk on the basis of the Techa river data is evaluated as 0.48-1.10 per 10(4) persons/years/Gy.
The Chernobyl nuclear accident on 26th April, 1986, led to a massive release of radionuclides into the environment. Although vast areas of Europe were affected by Chernobyl-related ionising radiation, the accident had the greatest impact in Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation. Epidemiological studies that have investigated the link between the Chernobyl accident and cancer have largely focused on malignant diseases in children, specifically thyroid cancer and leukaemia. There is good evidence to suggest that rates of thyroid cancer in children from the countries that were formally part of the Soviet Union have risen as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The findings for childhood leukaemia are less conclusive. Overall rates for this disease do not seem to have been affected by the Chernobyl-related ionising radiation, but there may be a larger risk of infant leukaemia in contaminated areas of Europe. Among adult populations, there is no strong evidence to suggest that risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia, or other malignant disease has increased as a result of the Chernobyl accident.
To study early (deterministic) and long-term effects of radiation exposure, the "Clinic" medical-dosimetric database for the Mayak Production Association worker cohort has been established at the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). This paper describes the principles of organization, structure and prospects of future utilization of this database.
The biological effects of cosmic rays and ionising radiations on man are described. Particular attention is paid to the consequences of the environmental pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident and the relationship between I131 radiation and thyroid tumours is analysed.
It has been shown that there is a significant increase in total morbidity in children residing in the areas exposed to radioactive pollution due to the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. This is due largely to higher morbidity of respiratory disease. There is also an increased in the incidence of digestive diseases, iron-deficiency anemias, mental disorders. The recorded growth of childhood morbidity in the areas examined is much higher than that in the children living in other areas unexposed to radioactive pollution.
In their paper, the authors are dealing with the effect of the Chernobyl's nuclear catastrophe (1986) for the outcome of pregnancy and some parameters of the status of health. Their empirical study is based on a sample (sample size is 1168) of pregnant of the critical year 1986, and also based on a control sample (sample size is 1068) of the year 1985. They compared the five old year children's parameters of status of health between the critical and control groups. Their retrospective epidemiologic survey is extended to study some prenatal, perinatal and childhood parameters also. Finally, they summarise the biometric evaluation of their questionnaire survey. No significant difference of health conditions of the two groups defined above was found.