Skip header and navigation

Refine By

84 records – page 1 of 9.

The accident at Chernobyl and outcome of pregnancy in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38150
Source
BMJ. 1989 Apr 15;298(6679):995-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-1989
Author
T. Harjulehto
T. Aro
H. Rita
T. Rytömaa
L. Saxén
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
BMJ. 1989 Apr 15;298(6679):995-7
Date
Apr-15-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - etiology
Accidents
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland
Geography
Humans
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Nuclear Reactors
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Radioactive Fallout - adverse effects
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in Finnish women after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986. DESIGN--Geographic and temporal cohort study. SETTING--Finland divided into three zones according to amount of radioactive fallout. SUBJECTS--All children who were exposed to radiation during their fetal development. Children born before any effects of the accident could be postulated--that is, between 1 January 1984 and 30 June 1986--served as controls. INTERVENTIONS--Children were divided into three temporal groups: controls, children who were expected to be born in August to December 1986, and children who were expected to be born in February to December 1987. They were also divided, separately, into three groups according to the three geographic zones. END POINT--Incidence of congenital malformations, preterm births, and perinatal deaths. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--There were no significant differences in the incidence of malformations or perinatal deaths among the three temporal and three geographic groups. A significant increase in preterm births occurred among children who were exposed to radiation during the first trimester whose mothers lived in zones 2 and 3, where the external dose rate and estimated surface activity of caesium-137 were highest. CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest that the amount of radioactive fallout that Finnish people were exposed to after the accident at Chernobyl was not high enough to cause fetal damage in children born at term. The higher incidence of premature births among malformed children in the most heavily polluted areas, however, remains unexplained.
Notes
Comment In: BMJ. 1989 May 20;298(6684):13842502266
PubMed ID
2499391 View in PubMed
Less detail

[A computing laboratory-clinical system in the screening of malignant tumors: study of the state of the antioxidant system and level of cellular proliferation markers among the population from the Chernobyl AES accident area]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24950
Source
Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR. 1991;(8):36-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
N A Grigorovich
Source
Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR. 1991;(8):36-40
Date
1991
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Antioxidants
Biological Markers
English Abstract
Humans
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - diagnosis - prevention & control
Nuclear Reactors
Radiation Dosage
Risk factors
Software
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
The author bases and describes the computing laboratory and clinical system for screening groups at a higher risk for malignant neoplasms whose incidence is likely to increase due to irradiation. Two years after the disaster the detected group at a higher risk was 2-2.4 times larger than the control group among persons who received the total irradiation dose 5 rem and over as well as among persons who are to be removed from the area polluted with radionuclides whatever the dose. As the time elapsed since the disaster increases, the number of subjects with a higher level of biomarkers also grows. It is advisable that this system be introduced in all fields of the practical health care in the polluted and control areas to carry out goal-oriented treatment and diagnostic measures in the selected population groups.
PubMed ID
1950158 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acute effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on Irish mortality?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38051
Source
Ir Med J. 1989 Sep;82(3):119-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1989
Author
S. Allwright
L. Daly
Source
Ir Med J. 1989 Sep;82(3):119-21
Date
Sep-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Air Pollution, Radioactive - adverse effects
Cause of Death
Child
Child, Preschool
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Ireland
Middle Aged
Nuclear Reactors
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
This report examines the claim that Irish mortality in the second quarter (April-June) of 1986 increased due to the cloud of radioactive material released by the damaged reactor in Chernobyl. Over the period 1971-1987, based on date of registration, the death rates in the second quarter showed marked year to year variation often exceeding that expected on the basis of chance alone. In 1986 the percentage of annual deaths occurring between April and June, and the death rate itself, were both significantly higher than in most other years between 1981 and 1987. The 1986 figures were not however, significantly higher than those observed in years prior to 1981. Since the distribution of mortality by cause was not consistent with the hypothesis relating low level radiation to immediate mortality, and since causality cannot be inferred from a temporal association per se, the Chernobyl accident cannot be implicated in the excess mortality observed in the second quarter of 1986.
PubMed ID
2599835 View in PubMed
Less detail

[A morphogenetic analysis of a callus culture of Nicotiana tabacum L. in chronic irradiation of the plants]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature69089
Source
Tsitol Genet. 1993 Jan-Feb;27(1):63-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
A A Konopleva
D M Grodzinskii
L V Zheltonozhskaia
Source
Tsitol Genet. 1993 Jan-Feb;27(1):63-7
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - adverse effects
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Nuclear Reactors
Plants, Toxic
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive Fallout - adverse effects
Time Factors
Tobacco - anatomy & histology - genetics - radiation effects
Ukraine
Abstract
The callus culture of Nicotiana tabacum L. was obtained from the plants chronically irradiated in 10 km zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. The tobacco plants in 10 km zone of Chernobyl during the vegetation period exposed to irradiation with the average dose rate of 0.36 mA/kg (5 mP/h). The total absorbed dose was approximately 0,31 Gy. The morphogenetic analysis of this culture shows a considerable decrease of regeneration index and callus weight.
PubMed ID
8316955 View in PubMed
Less detail

Analysis of body-burden measurements of 137Cs and 40K in a Japanese group over a period of 5 years following the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75071
Source
Health Phys. 1996 Sep;71(3):320-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1996
Author
M. Uchiyama
Y. Nakamura
S. Kobayashi
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba-shi, Japan.
Source
Health Phys. 1996 Sep;71(3):320-5
Date
Sep-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Humans
Japan
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
A selected group of about 20 male researchers at the NIRS that reside in Chiba, Japan, was measured for total body content of radiocesium and 40K every 3 mo from February 1986 to May 1991. A whole-body counter at the NIRS was used to measure their radioactivity in a scanning mode of 5 cm min-1 in a shielded iron room with walls 20 cm in thickness. A maximum radiocesium level of 59 Bq was observed in May 1987. The annual change in the body burden decreased with an apparent half-time of 1.8 y after May 1987. The period of five years was sufficient to eliminate the effects of the accident in this group. Even in the most contaminated period, the dose from radiocesium was below 2 microSv y-1. The cumulative dose for 5 y was estimated to be 5.6 microSv, which is nearly equal to the total dose to the Japanese people caused by the artificial radionuclide fallout for the first year following the accident. It is much smaller than the committed dose of 82 microSv for internally deposited 137Cs resulting from nuclear explosions in 1961 and 1962 and the annual dose of 170 microSv from internal 40K. No detectable health risk was expected for the present group.
PubMed ID
8698573 View in PubMed
Less detail

Analysis of urine for pure beta emitters: methods and application.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133385
Source
Health Phys. 2011 Aug;101(2):159-69
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Xiaolin Hou
Author Affiliation
Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, NUK-202, DK-4000, Roskilde, Denmark. xiho@risoe.dtu.dk
Source
Health Phys. 2011 Aug;101(2):159-69
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adsorption
Beta Particles
Carbon Radioisotopes - urine
Charcoal - chemistry
Denmark
Humans
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Radiation Monitoring - methods - standards
Radioisotopes - urine
Scintillation Counting
Sensitivity and specificity
Time Factors
Tritium - urine
Abstract
Bioassay for individual radionuclides is an essential and first step in estimation of radiation risk to nuclear facilities workers and people who are exposed to the contaminated environment in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological attack. Urine is a frequently used biological sample for this purpose. Tritium and (14)C are important radionuclides for workers in nuclear reactors and radiopharmaceutical laboratories. A method for the determination of tritium and (14)C in organic and inorganic forms in urine has been developed. It involves activated charcoal absorption of organic matter followed by combustion to separate tritiated water from organically-bound tritium. Inorganic (14)C from organically-bound (14)C, the separated tritium and (14)C were measured using liquid scintillation counting. Iodine-129, a long-lived beta emitter, is normally released to the atmosphere during the operation of nuclear facilities, especially in reprocessing plants. The high concentration of iodine in the thyroid makes this radionuclide an important source of exposure to exposed populations. A simple method has been developed in this work for the determination of (129)I in urine by anion exchange preconcentration, extraction purification and liquid scintillation counting. Using accelerator mass spectrometry, urine samples can be analyzed for low level (129)I in both organic and inorganic forms after active charcoal adsorption and solvent extraction separation. Condensed water collected daily from the reactor hall in a Danish research reactor and monthly urine samples from the staff working in the reactor building were collected from 2003-2010 and analyzed using this method, and the results are presented and discussed.
PubMed ID
21709504 View in PubMed
Less detail

[An analysis of chromosome aberrations and SCE in children from radiation-contaminated regions of Ukraine]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35870
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1994 Mar-Apr;34(2):163-71
Publication Type
Article
Author
I M Eliseeva
E L Iofa
E F Stoian
V A Shevchenko
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1994 Mar-Apr;34(2):163-71
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational
Air Pollution, Radioactive - adverse effects
Child
Chromosome Aberrations
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Humans
Metaphase - radiation effects
Moscow
Nuclear Reactors
Power Plants
Rural Population
Sister Chromatid Exchange - radiation effects
Time Factors
Ukraine
Urban Population
Abstract
About a two years later after the reactor accident in Chernobyl we carried out a three-year cytogenetical study of children, dwelling in two regions of Ukraine where the radiation fallout occurred. Chromosome analyses of these individuals have shown a significant increase of the frequency of aberrant cells and chromosomal type aberrations in comparison to the control. We have discovered the increase of the level of chromosomal type aberrations, extension in spectrum of complicate aberrations of chromosome (dicentrics, rings and exchange aberrations) with the years and the increase with the years a share of children with various chromosomal abnormalities. Analyses of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and a replication index (RI) show a significant increase of RI meaning with the years in comparison to the control. The SCE frequency didn't altered as compared to the control during different years of investigation.
PubMed ID
8193702 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Assessment of oncogenic risk of the irradiation of the thyroid gland in humans]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24951
Source
Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR. 1991;(8):32-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
I A Zvonova
I A Likhtarev
I V Filiushkin
N K Shandala
G M Gul'ko
Source
Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR. 1991;(8):32-6
Date
1991
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Child
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Male
Models, Theoretical
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - etiology
Nuclear Reactors
Radiation Dosage
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Thyroid Gland - radiation effects
Thyroid Neoplasms - etiology
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
The paper deals with one of the most urgent aspects of irradiation hygiene, namely assessment of risk for irradiation-induced cancers of the thyroid. A model is described to predict high mortality rates of thyroidal cancer in the population due to the catastrophe at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. With the model, life-time risk rates involving sex and age at the moment of irradiation, as well as an irradiation mode.
PubMed ID
1950157 View in PubMed
Less detail

84 records – page 1 of 9.