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Analysis of multiaberrant cells in lymphocytes of persons living in different ecological regions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59438
Source
Mutat Res. 1994 Jan-Feb;323(1-2):7-10
Publication Type
Article
Author
N P Bochkov
L D Katosova
Author Affiliation
Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy, Russia.
Source
Mutat Res. 1994 Jan-Feb;323(1-2):7-10
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adult
Cells, Cultured
Chromosome Aberrations
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Lymphocytes - drug effects - radiation effects
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure
Radioactive Pollutants - toxicity
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Ukraine
Abstract
An analysis was carried out of multiaberrant ("rogue") cells in lymphocytes of persons living in unpolluted areas (controls), and in areas chemically or radioactively (Chernobyl fall-out) polluted. The total number of analysed cells was 102,391, among these 10 cells with three and more aberrations were found. These multiaberrant cells occur in persons of both sexes and various ages living in regions with a moderate degree of mutagenic exposure. The main types of aberrations in multiaberrant cells were chromosome exchanges, accompanied by double fragments.
PubMed ID
7508570 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cancer incidence among nuclear workers in Russia based on data from the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering: a preliminary analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194679
Source
Radiat Res. 2001 Jun;155(6):801-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
V K Ivanov
A F Tsyb
E M Rastopchin
A I Gorsky
M A Maksyutov
V I Vayzer
Y V Suspitsin
Y V Fedorov
Author Affiliation
Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk, Russia.
Source
Radiat Res. 2001 Jun;155(6):801-8
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure
Power Plants
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
One group that has the potential to be exposed to radiation is workers in the nuclear industry. Results of a systematic medical follow-up and dosimetric monitoring of these workers can form the basis for a study of the relationship between cancer incidence and radiation dose. As part of such efforts in Russia, a major institution of the nuclear industry with an established medical care unit, archiving capabilities, and dosimetry department was selected: the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk. In the study, a comparative analysis of cancer incidence rates for the IPPE workers and for the general population of Russia in 1991-1997 was carried out. The subjects were the IPPE workers hired before 1981. This restriction was imposed to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible latent period in the development of solid cancers. Thus the possibility of including persons who already had the disease at the time when they were hired was minimized. The analysis is based on information about 158 cancer cases, including 24 cancers in persons under individual dosimetric monitoring. A statistically significant excess in cancer incidence was found among the IPPE workers compared with a comparison population (the general population of Russia) for some types of cancers. The SIR values for all cancers (ICD-9: 140-208) is 0.93 (95% CI 0.76, 1.12) for males and 1.42 (95% CI 1.06, 1.87) for females. A statistically significant excess for all cancers was also observed for residents of Obninsk compared to the control comparison population. The corresponding SIR value was 1.20 (95% CI 1.12, 1.28) for males and 1.58 (95% CI 1.49, 1.69) for females. An important reason for the observed excess in cancer incidence compared to the control population may be the higher level of health care in the so-called nuclear cities of Russia which may have resulted in increased diagnosis and registration of cancers. A statistically significant dependence of the cancer incidence on the dose of ionizing radiation was not established. The excess relative risk per gray for all types of cancer was 0.91 (95% CI -2.75, 4.61) for males and 0.40 (95% CI -6.94, 7.83) for females. These estimates should be considered to be preliminary, as the number of cases considered in the analysis of the dose response is small (17 males and 7 females).
PubMed ID
11352762 View in PubMed
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[Cardiovascular changes based on ECG data in workers involved in the elimination of the sequelae of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature55379
Source
Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1990;(10):3-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
L I Kovaleva
P N Liubchenko
E V Dubinina
Source
Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1990;(10):3-6
Date
1990
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adult
Bradycardia - diagnosis - etiology
Cardiovascular System - radiation effects
Electrocardiography
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - etiology
Occupational Exposure
Power Plants
Ukraine
Abstract
122 persons who had participated in the Chernobyl nuclear power station disaster control were passed through ECG examinations, as a result of which susceptibility to bradycardia was revealed. To exclude a marked vagal influence on the myocardium, orthostatic, atropine and ephedrine tests were performed. Weakened reactions to atropine and ephedrine indicated a secondary vagotomy caused by the lowered sensitivity of beta-adrenoreceptors.
PubMed ID
2276662 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cardiovascular diseases in the cohort of workers first employed at Mayak PA in 1948-1958.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141764
Source
Radiat Res. 2010 Aug;174(2):155-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
T V Azizova
C R Muirhead
M B Druzhinina
E S Grigoryeva
E V Vlasenko
M V Sumina
J A O'Hagan
W. Zhang
R G E Haylock
N. Hunter
Author Affiliation
Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia. clinic@subi.su
Source
Radiat Res. 2010 Aug;174(2):155-68
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alpha Particles
Body Burden
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - mortality - radionuclide imaging
Cohort Studies
Employment
Female
Humans
Male
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - mortality - radionuclide imaging
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology - mortality - radionuclide imaging
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - mortality
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium - analysis
Poisson Distribution
Radiation Dosage
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
Incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular diseases have been studied in a cohort of 12,210 workers first employed at one of the main plants of the Mayak nuclear facility during 1948-1958 and followed up to 31 December 2000. Information on external gamma-ray doses is available for virtually all of these workers (99.9%); the mean total gamma-ray dose (+/-SD) was 0.91 +/- 0.95 Gy (99% percentile 3.9 Gy) for men and 0.65 +/- 0.75 Gy (99% percentile 2.99 Gy) for women. In contrast, plutonium body burden was measured for only 30.0% of workers; among those monitored, the mean cumulative liver dose from plutonium alpha exposure (+/- SD) was 0.40 +/- 1.15 Gy (99% percentile 5.88 Gy) for men and 0.81 +/- 4.60 Gy (99% percentile 15.95 Gy) for women. A total of 3751 cases of ischemic heart disease (IHD), including 683 cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and 1495 IHD deaths, including 338 AMI deaths, were identified in the study cohort during the follow-up period. Having adjusted for non-radiation factors, there were statistically significant increasing trends with both total external gamma-ray dose and internal liver dose in IHD incidence. The trend with internal dose was weaker and was not statistically significant after adjusting for external dose, whereas the external dose trend was little changed after adjusting for internal dose. The trend with external dose in IHD mortality was not statistically significantly greater than zero but was consistent with the corresponding trend in IHD incidence. The estimated trend in IHD mortality with internal dose was lower and was not statistically significant once adjustment was made for external dose. There was a statistically significantly increasing trend in AMI incidence but not AMI incidence with external dose. The risk estimates for IHD in relation to external radiation are generally compatible with those from other large occupational studies and the Japanese A-bomb survivors.
PubMed ID
20681782 View in PubMed
Less detail

Characteristics of the cohort of workers at the Mayak nuclear complex.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200943
Source
Radiat Res. 1999 Oct;152(4):352-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1999
Author
N A Koshurnikova
N S Shilnikova
P V Okatenko
V V Kreslov
M G Bolotnikova
M E Sokolnikov
V F Khokhriakov
K G Suslova
E K Vassilenko
S A Romanov
Author Affiliation
Branch No. 1 of the State Research Center "Biophysics Institute", Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region, Russia.
Source
Radiat Res. 1999 Oct;152(4):352-63
Date
Oct-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Information Services
Male
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
At Branch No. 1 of the Russian State Research Center "Biophysics Institute", a registry has been created of workers at the "Mayak" Production Association, the first nuclear complex in Russia. This registry includes 18,830 persons hired at Mayak's nuclear reactors and radiochemical and plutonium production plant between 1948 and 1972. Twenty-five percent of these workers are women. As of December 31, 1994, the vital status is known for approximately 90% of the cohort members. A total of 5,118 persons have died. The cause for 97% of total deaths has been ascertained. The cohort members were exposed to both external gamma radiation and internal radiation from incorporated plutonium. The plutonium body burden has been measured in 30% of the cohort members with potential for plutonium exposure. External gamma-ray doses were in the range from tenths of milligrays to about 10 Gy, and plutonium body burdens were up to about 260 kBq. In view of the nature of the Mayak worker cohort, it has the potential to provide reasonably precise, quantitative estimates of the long-term health effects associated with chronic low-dose-rate exposure to external gamma radiation as well as internal radiation from plutonium. However, a number of issues must be addressed before credible risk estimates can be obtained from this cohort. These issues include the development of an appropriate internal comparison group and/or external rates and separating of the effects of internal and external exposures on risk estimates.
PubMed ID
10477912 View in PubMed
Less detail

The "clinic" medical-dosimetric database of Mayak production association workers: structure, characteristics and prospects of utilization.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157793
Source
Health Phys. 2008 May;94(5):449-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Tamara V Azizova
Richard D Day
Niel Wald
Colin R Muirhead
Jacqueline A O'Hagan
Margarita V Sumina
Zinaida D Belyaeva
Maria B Druzhinina
Igor I Teplyakov
Nadezhda G Semenikhina
Larisa A Stetsenko
Evgenia S Grigoryeva
Larisa N Krupenina
Elena V Vlasenko
Author Affiliation
Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk, Russia. clinic@ozersk.com
Source
Health Phys. 2008 May;94(5):449-58
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Radioactive
Databases as Topic
Humans
Models, Biological
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive Hazard Release
Russia
Abstract
To study early (deterministic) and long-term effects of radiation exposure, the "Clinic" medical-dosimetric database for the Mayak Production Association worker cohort has been established at the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). This paper describes the principles of organization, structure and prospects of future utilization of this database.
PubMed ID
18403966 View in PubMed
Less detail

Complex chromosome aberrations persist in individuals many years after occupational exposure to densely ionizing radiation: an mFISH study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174652
Source
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005 Sep;44(1):1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
M Prakash Hande
Tamara V Azizova
Ludmilla E Burak
Valentin F Khokhryakov
Charles R Geard
David J Brenner
Author Affiliation
Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA.
Source
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005 Sep;44(1):1-9
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromosome Aberrations - radiation effects
Chromosomes, Human - radiation effects
Humans
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium
Radiation, Ionizing
Radon
Russia
Translocation, Genetic
Abstract
Long-lived, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of particular mutagenic agents are much sought after and potentially have broad applications in the fields of cancer biology, epidemiology, and prevention. Many clastogens induce a spectrum of chromosome aberrations, and some of them can be exploited as biomarkers of exposure. Densely ionizing radiation, for example, alpha particle radiation (from radon or plutonium) and neutron radiation, preferentially induces complex chromosome aberrations, which can be detected by the 24-color multifluor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) technique. We report the detection and quantification of stable complex chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of healthy former nuclear-weapons workers, who were exposed many years ago to plutonium, gamma rays, or both, at the Mayak weapons complex in Russia. We analyzed peripheral-blood lymphocytes from these individuals for the presence of persistent complex chromosome aberrations. A significantly elevated frequency of complex chromosome translocations was detected in the highly exposed plutonium workers but not in the group exposed only to high doses of gamma radiation. No such differences were found for simple chromosomal aberrations. The results suggest that stable complex chromosomal translocations represent a long-lived, quantitative, low-background biomarker of densely ionizing radiation for human populations exposed many years ago.
PubMed ID
15912529 View in PubMed
Less detail

Concerns with low-level ionizing radiation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature23668
Source
Mayo Clin Proc. 1994 May;69(5):436-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1994
Author
R S Yalow
Author Affiliation
Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York.
Source
Mayo Clin Proc. 1994 May;69(5):436-40
Date
May-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational
Background Radiation
Environmental Exposure
Humans
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure
Radiation Effects
Radioisotopes - adverse effects - diagnostic use
Radiotherapy - adverse effects
Radon
Ukraine
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effects of ionizing radiation and to dispel fear associated with the use of radioactivity in medical diagnosis and therapy. DESIGN: Studies of populations in geographic areas of increased cosmic radiation and high natural background radiation, radiation-exposed workers, patients with medical exposure to radioactivity, and accidental exposure are reviewed. RESULTS: No reproducible evidence shows harmful effects associated with increases in background radiation of 3 to 10 times the usual levels. American military personnel who participated in nuclear testing had no increase in leukemia or other cancers. Among 22,000 patients with hyperthyroidism treated with 131I (mean dose, 10 rem), no increased incidence of leukemia was found in comparison with 14,000 similar patients who received other treatment. A 20-year follow-up of 35,000 patients who underwent 131I uptake tests for evaluation of thyroid function revealed that those studied for other than a suspected tumor had only 60% of the thyroid cancers expected in a control group. Although early studies showed that high exposures to miners to radon and its daughters resulted in a substantial increase in lung cancer, no evidence exists for an increase in lung cancer among nonsmokers exposed to increased radon levels in the home. CONCLUSION: Perhaps the association of radiation with the atomic bomb has created a climate of fear about the possible dangers of radiation at any level; however, no evidence indicates that current radiation exposures associated with medical usage are harmful.
PubMed ID
8170194 View in PubMed
Less detail

Emerging technological bases for retrospective dosimetry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22298
Source
Stem Cells. 1997;15 Suppl 2:183-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
T. Straume
L R Anspaugh
E H Haskell
J N Lucas
A A Marchetti
I A Likhtarev
V V Chumak
A A Romanyukha
V T Khrouch
Gavrilin YuI
V F Minenko
Author Affiliation
Health and Ecological Assessment Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, USA.
Source
Stem Cells. 1997;15 Suppl 2:183-93
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Animals
Child
Fast Neutrons
Humans
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Iodine Radioisotopes
Japan
Lymphocytes - radiation effects
Macaca mulatta
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear Warfare
Occupational Exposure
Power Plants
Radiometry
Retrospective Studies
Thermoluminescent Dosimetry
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology
Translocation, Genetic
Ukraine
Abstract
In this article we discuss examples of challenging problems in retrospective dosimetry and describe some promising solutions. The ability to make measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry and luminescence techniques promises to provide improved dosimetry for regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation contaminated by radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident. In addition, it may soon be possible to resolve the large neutron discrepancy in the dosimetry system for Hiroshima through novel measurement techniques that can be used to reconstruct the fast-neutron fluence emitted by the bomb some 51 years ago. Important advances in molecular cytogenetics and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements have produced biodosimeters that show potential in retrospective dosimetry. The most promising of these are the frequency of reciprocal translocations measured in chromosomes of blood lymphocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the electron paramagnetic resonance signal in tooth enamel.
PubMed ID
9368303 View in PubMed
Less detail

22 records – page 1 of 3.