Skip header and navigation

Refine By

48 records – page 1 of 5.

The adequacy of current occupational standards for protecting the health of nuclear workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24709
Source
Occup Med. 1991 Oct-Dec;6(4):725-39
Publication Type
Article
Author
B E Lambert
Author Affiliation
Department of Radiation Biology, Medical College of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, University of London, England.
Source
Occup Med. 1991 Oct-Dec;6(4):725-39
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Forecasting
Humans
Incidence
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - prevention & control
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Protection - standards
Abstract
It will be clear from the aforegoing that occupational standards have varied over the past 30-40 years since the beginnings of the nuclear industry. Our perception of risk rates for cancer mortality and genetic effects has changed, such that the rates have been constantly revised upwards. Logically, dose limits should have been reduced in proportion, but this assumes a constant approach to the "tolerability" or "acceptability" of risk and this has not been demonstrated. Dose limits are not seen by management in the nuclear industry as the only plank in the structure of radiation protection; emphasis is also being given to the "optimization" ethic. In these circumstances a good test of the efficacy of the system of radiation control in limiting health effects is needed. As can be seen, no such study is available and, given the doses received and the numbers of workers involved, it is unlikely that any epidemiologic study, apart from studies on miners, will have sufficient statistical power to be totally unequivocal. However, some studies have shown cancer mortality associations with radiation exposure that are significant. Probably the best way to mitigate the inherent drawbacks in these studies is to pool data-sets, and this is being done. Other improvements will include estimates of cancer incidence in countries with cancer registries (e.g., U.K., Canada, and Sweden) and to perhaps go beyond epidemiologic data to consider sensitive biologic markers as indices of exposure. Overall the conclusion must be that the radiation industry cannot be complacent and for some tasks in the processes involved (e.g., uranium mining) there is strong evidence of a history of unacceptable health effects occurring.
PubMed ID
1962255 View in PubMed
Less detail

[A preliminary analysis of oral morbidity in the children of Byelarus after the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36318
Source
Stomatologiia (Mosk). 1993 Apr-Jun;72(2):67-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
E M Mel'nichenko
L I Leus
K A Gorbacheva
L P Belik
E M Gul'ko
T K Ostromentskaia
O V Pyleva
L V Shuglia
Source
Stomatologiia (Mosk). 1993 Apr-Jun;72(2):67-8
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational
Air Pollution, Radioactive - adverse effects
Byelarus - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Ecology
English Abstract
Humans
Incidence
Mouth Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Nuclear Reactors
Power Plants
Radiation Injuries - complications - epidemiology
Ukraine
Abstract
Presents the data of analysis of medical files of therapeutic institutions, of questionnaires distributed among dentists, and the results of examinations of 883 children aged 3 to 6, living in 19 towns of Byelorussia. The incidence and clinical picture of a number of dental diseases were found changed in the children living in the regions contaminated with radionuclides, as well as the general well-being of these children.
PubMed ID
8048139 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Assessment of the influence of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster on incidence of thyroid diseases among children in Poland. Preliminary results]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20331
Source
Med Wieku Rozwoj. 1999 Oct-Dec;3(4):561-72
Publication Type
Article
Author
M. Szymborska
Author Affiliation
Zaklad Endokrynologii IMD, Instytut Matki i Dziecka w Warszawie.
Source
Med Wieku Rozwoj. 1999 Oct-Dec;3(4):561-72
Language
Polish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Autoantibodies - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
English Abstract
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Goiter - diagnosis - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Poland - epidemiology
Sex Distribution
Thyroid Diseases - blood - epidemiology - immunology - ultrasonography
Thyroid Gland - immunology
Thyroid Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology
Thyrotropin - blood
Ukraine
Abstract
It was attempted to assess the incidence of thyroid diseases in Polish children born between 1980-1986, who at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster were 0-6 years old, or whose mothers were in the third trimester of pregnancy. 3071 children have been examined, 1772 girls and 1299 boys. The following were assessed in each child: the health status, the developmental level, the thyroid ultrasound examination, and the level of TSH, FT4, antithyroid antibodies ATM and ATGL in the blood serum. Disorders in thyroid morphology (abnormal echogenicity) have been found in 462 children (15%), almost twice as much in girls than in boys. Goiter has been recognized in 4.6% of all children, an abnormal echogenity in 5.4% and focal changes in 4.8%. 3.9% of children have been found to have a high level of ATM antibodies, and 8.7%--a high level of ATGL antibodies. Among 6 children, who had thyroidectomy, 2 children have been diagnosed to have ca papillary and 4 children--adenoma.
PubMed ID
10910679 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189300
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2002 Jul;44(7):634-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2002
Author
Anssi Auvinen
Eero Pukkala
Hannu Hyvönen
Matti Hakama
Tapio Rytömaa
Author Affiliation
STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, PO Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki, Finland. anssi.auvinen@uta.fi
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2002 Jul;44(7):634-8
Date
Jul-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Questionnaires
Registries
Risk factors
Abstract
Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort.
PubMed ID
12134527 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cancer incidence among nuclear workers in Russia based on data from the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering: a preliminary analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194679
Source
Radiat Res. 2001 Jun;155(6):801-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
V K Ivanov
A F Tsyb
E M Rastopchin
A I Gorsky
M A Maksyutov
V I Vayzer
Y V Suspitsin
Y V Fedorov
Author Affiliation
Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk, Russia.
Source
Radiat Res. 2001 Jun;155(6):801-8
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure
Power Plants
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
One group that has the potential to be exposed to radiation is workers in the nuclear industry. Results of a systematic medical follow-up and dosimetric monitoring of these workers can form the basis for a study of the relationship between cancer incidence and radiation dose. As part of such efforts in Russia, a major institution of the nuclear industry with an established medical care unit, archiving capabilities, and dosimetry department was selected: the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk. In the study, a comparative analysis of cancer incidence rates for the IPPE workers and for the general population of Russia in 1991-1997 was carried out. The subjects were the IPPE workers hired before 1981. This restriction was imposed to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible latent period in the development of solid cancers. Thus the possibility of including persons who already had the disease at the time when they were hired was minimized. The analysis is based on information about 158 cancer cases, including 24 cancers in persons under individual dosimetric monitoring. A statistically significant excess in cancer incidence was found among the IPPE workers compared with a comparison population (the general population of Russia) for some types of cancers. The SIR values for all cancers (ICD-9: 140-208) is 0.93 (95% CI 0.76, 1.12) for males and 1.42 (95% CI 1.06, 1.87) for females. A statistically significant excess for all cancers was also observed for residents of Obninsk compared to the control comparison population. The corresponding SIR value was 1.20 (95% CI 1.12, 1.28) for males and 1.58 (95% CI 1.49, 1.69) for females. An important reason for the observed excess in cancer incidence compared to the control population may be the higher level of health care in the so-called nuclear cities of Russia which may have resulted in increased diagnosis and registration of cancers. A statistically significant dependence of the cancer incidence on the dose of ionizing radiation was not established. The excess relative risk per gray for all types of cancer was 0.91 (95% CI -2.75, 4.61) for males and 0.40 (95% CI -6.94, 7.83) for females. These estimates should be considered to be preliminary, as the number of cases considered in the analysis of the dose response is small (17 males and 7 females).
PubMed ID
11352762 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cerebrovascular diseases in the cohort of workers first employed at Mayak PA in 1948-1958.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138882
Source
Radiat Res. 2010 Dec;174(6):851-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
T V Azizova
C R Muirhead
M B Druzhinina
E S Grigoryeva
E V Vlasenko
M V Sumina
J A O'Hagan
W. Zhang
R G E Haylock
N. Hunter
Author Affiliation
Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region, Russia. clinic@subi.su
Source
Radiat Res. 2010 Dec;174(6):851-64
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cerebrovascular Disorders - epidemiology - mortality
Cohort Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Russia - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
The incidence of and mortality from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been studied in a cohort of 12,210 workers first employed at one of the main plants of the Mayak nuclear facility during 1948-1958 and followed up to 31 December 2000. Information on external ?-ray doses is available for virtually all of these workers (99.9%); the mean total ?-ray dose (± SD) was 0.91 ± 0.95 Gy (99th percentile 3.9 Gy) for men and 0.65 ± 0.75 Gy (99th percentile 2.99 Gy) for women. In contrast, plutonium body burden was measured only for 30.0% of workers; among those monitored, the mean cumulative liver dose from plutonium a-particle exposure (± SD) was 0.40 ± 1.15 Gy (99th percentile 5.88 Gy) for men and 0.81 ± 4.60 Gy (99th percentile 15.95 Gy) for women. A total of 4418 cases of CVD, including 665 cases of stroke, and 753 deaths from CVD, including 404 deaths from stroke, were identified in the study cohort. Having adjusted for non-radiation factors, there were statistically significant increasing trends in CVD incidence but not mortality with both total external ?-ray dose and internal liver dose. Much of the evidence for increased incidence in relation to external dose arose for workers with cumulative doses above 1 Gy. Although the dose response is consistent with linearity, the statistical power to detect non-linearity at external doses below 1 Gy was low. CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with a plutonium liver dose above 0.1 Gy. There was a statistically significant increasing trend in incidence with increasing internal dose, even after adjusting for external dose, although the trend estimates differed between workers at different plants. The risk estimates for external radiation are generally compatible with those from other large occupational studies, although the incidence data point to higher risk estimates compared to those from the Japanese A-bomb survivors.
PubMed ID
21128809 View in PubMed
Less detail

Childhood leukaemia following the Chernobyl accident: the European Childhood Leukaemia-Lymphoma Incidence Study (ECLIS).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24601
Source
Eur J Cancer. 1992;29A(1):87-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
1992
Author
D M Parkin
E. Cardis
E. Masuyer
H P Friedl
H. Hansluwka
D. Bobev
E. Ivanov
J. Sinnaeve
J. Augustin
I. Plesko
Author Affiliation
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
Source
Eur J Cancer. 1992;29A(1):87-95
Date
1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Leukemia, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Lymphoma - epidemiology
Male
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive Fallout - adverse effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Ukraine - epidemiology
Abstract
The objective of the European Childhood Leukaemia-Lymphoma Incidence Study (ECLIS) is to investigate trends in incidence rates of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma in Europe, in relation to the exposure to radiation which resulted from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986. In this first report, the incidence of leukaemia in children aged 0-14 is presented from cancer registries in 20 European countries for the period 1980-1988. Risk of leukaemia in 1987-1988 (8-32 months post-accident) relative to that before 1986, is compared with estimated average dose of radiation received by the population in 30 geographic areas. The observed changes in incidence do not relate to exposure. The period of follow-up is so far rather brief, and the study is planned to continue for at least 10 years.
PubMed ID
1445751 View in PubMed
Less detail

Childhood thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident: a status report.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22721
Source
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1996 Mar;25(1):197-211
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1996
Author
D V Becker
J. Robbins
G W Beebe
A C Bouville
B W Wachholz
Author Affiliation
Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, USA.
Source
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1996 Mar;25(1):197-211
Date
Mar-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Nuclear Reactors
Power Plants
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Ukraine
Notes
Erratum In: Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1996 Jun;25(2):xi
PubMed ID
8907687 View in PubMed
Less detail

48 records – page 1 of 5.