The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135,000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated.
The chromosome dicentric aberrations in the lymphocytes and levels of antibodies to human thyroid microsomal antigen in the serum of the children lived in the area of Bryansk Province suffered from the Chernobyl accident was examined. Correlation between those tests was not estimated: the autoantibodies were revealed in group with dicentrics and without those in 4.0% and 4.5% of cases correspondingly. Antimicrosomal antibodies were revealed more frequently (5.0%) and in higher titers in the children from the more polluted Bryansk Province than in those from Kaluga Province (3.1%). These data can testify about the role of inside radiation of thyroid gland in appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis signs.
[A computing laboratory-clinical system in the screening of malignant tumors: study of the state of the antioxidant system and level of cellular proliferation markers among the population from the Chernobyl AES accident area]
The author bases and describes the computing laboratory and clinical system for screening groups at a higher risk for malignant neoplasms whose incidence is likely to increase due to irradiation. Two years after the disaster the detected group at a higher risk was 2-2.4 times larger than the control group among persons who received the total irradiation dose 5 rem and over as well as among persons who are to be removed from the area polluted with radionuclides whatever the dose. As the time elapsed since the disaster increases, the number of subjects with a higher level of biomarkers also grows. It is advisable that this system be introduced in all fields of the practical health care in the polluted and control areas to carry out goal-oriented treatment and diagnostic measures in the selected population groups.
The callus culture of Nicotiana tabacum L. was obtained from the plants chronically irradiated in 10 km zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. The tobacco plants in 10 km zone of Chernobyl during the vegetation period exposed to irradiation with the average dose rate of 0.36 mA/kg (5 mP/h). The total absorbed dose was approximately 0,31 Gy. The morphogenetic analysis of this culture shows a considerable decrease of regeneration index and callus weight.
About a two years later after the reactor accident in Chernobyl we carried out a three-year cytogenetical study of children, dwelling in two regions of Ukraine where the radiation fallout occurred. Chromosome analyses of these individuals have shown a significant increase of the frequency of aberrant cells and chromosomal type aberrations in comparison to the control. We have discovered the increase of the level of chromosomal type aberrations, extension in spectrum of complicate aberrations of chromosome (dicentrics, rings and exchange aberrations) with the years and the increase with the years a share of children with various chromosomal abnormalities. Analyses of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and a replication index (RI) show a significant increase of RI meaning with the years in comparison to the control. The SCE frequency didn't altered as compared to the control during different years of investigation.
The permissible level of a radionuclide mixture, resulted from the Chernobyl burst, in the human being lungs was determined for two kinds of compounds: absolutely insoluble compounds and soluble compounds in the state of equilibrium. For this purpose the data were used concerning the radionuclide composition and aerosol disperse in lower atmosphere which were obtained by the Department for Dosimetric Control (NPO "Pripiat'"). The results of measurements of 137Cs content taken by the use of human radiation spectrometer (HRS) needed an adequate estimation: low level of 137Cs in the human lungs and body within the Chernobyl NPP, zone does not guarantee radiation security. The notion "permissible content" and the possibility of using thereof in the individual dosimetric control are discussed.
The paper describes the image of radiation menace. Basic differences in image parameters are revealed for some population groups. The psychological levels of the image are regarded as psychosocial phenomena. Some specific psychological consequences of mental regression are outlined in the paper.
The children living in 4 regions of Russia contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe were investigated. The control group consisted of the children of 2 regions which did not undergo this influence. The investigations were made 1-3 years after the catastrophe took place. An increase of etiologically non-clear asthenic-vegetative disorders was determined in the regions of radiation contamination. They were observed mainly among the children who had light residual organic cerebral deficiency. The authors cannot exclude the impact of the psychogenic factors.
For evaluation of the possibility of the appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles lived in the areas of Kaluga Province [correction of region] suffered from the Chernobyl accident the content of antibodies to human thyroid microsomal antigen was investigated. Percentage of positive sera varied from 4.8% to 1.2% during 6 years. There is significant difference in the frequency of the antibody appearance between persons suffered from radioactive iodine and unsuffered ones. Correlation between levels of antimicrosomal antibodies and radiation dose obtained from incorporated radioactive iodine was not estimated.
The course of 137Cs content of children after the reactor accident of Chernobyl measured by means of a whole-body counter could be reconstructed theoretically by a pharmacokinetic model. The children of the kindergarten of the hospital of the University of Cologne accumulated during the vegetation periods 1986/87 (I) 86.9, 1987/88 (II) 114.4 and 1988/89 (III) 24.4 Bq 137Cs per kg body weight.