About a two years later after the reactor accident in Chernobyl we carried out a three-year cytogenetical study of children, dwelling in two regions of Ukraine where the radiation fallout occurred. Chromosome analyses of these individuals have shown a significant increase of the frequency of aberrant cells and chromosomal type aberrations in comparison to the control. We have discovered the increase of the level of chromosomal type aberrations, extension in spectrum of complicate aberrations of chromosome (dicentrics, rings and exchange aberrations) with the years and the increase with the years a share of children with various chromosomal abnormalities. Analyses of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and a replication index (RI) show a significant increase of RI meaning with the years in comparison to the control. The SCE frequency didn't altered as compared to the control during different years of investigation.
The children living in 4 regions of Russia contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe were investigated. The control group consisted of the children of 2 regions which did not undergo this influence. The investigations were made 1-3 years after the catastrophe took place. An increase of etiologically non-clear asthenic-vegetative disorders was determined in the regions of radiation contamination. They were observed mainly among the children who had light residual organic cerebral deficiency. The authors cannot exclude the impact of the psychogenic factors.
For evaluation of the possibility of the appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles lived in the areas of Kaluga Province [correction of region] suffered from the Chernobyl accident the content of antibodies to human thyroid microsomal antigen was investigated. Percentage of positive sera varied from 4.8% to 1.2% during 6 years. There is significant difference in the frequency of the antibody appearance between persons suffered from radioactive iodine and unsuffered ones. Correlation between levels of antimicrosomal antibodies and radiation dose obtained from incorporated radioactive iodine was not estimated.
The aim of the present study was the observation of the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the population in low endemic goitre area after mass iodine prophylaxis after the Chernobyl catastrophe and the estimation of TSH and thyroid hormones secretion in this population. On the basis of the investigations carried out we could conclude that the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the population with confirmed endemic goitre is comparable to the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the healthy population. ATA occurrence in children after iodine prophylaxis could confirm the hypothesis that thyroglobulin immunity is higher after iodine intake. The lower T3 concentration observed in the group with antithyroid autoantibodies suggests that autoantibodies may be involved in the thyroid hormones synthesis or peripheral conversion of thyroid hormones.
Presents the data of analysis of medical files of therapeutic institutions, of questionnaires distributed among dentists, and the results of examinations of 883 children aged 3 to 6, living in 19 towns of Byelorussia. The incidence and clinical picture of a number of dental diseases were found changed in the children living in the regions contaminated with radionuclides, as well as the general well-being of these children.
Individual and population doses on Danish territory are calculated from hypothetical, severe core-melt accidents at the Swedish nuclear plant at Barsebäck. The release fractions for these accidents are taken from WASH-1400. Based on parametric studies, doses are calculated for very unfavourable, but not incredible weather conditions. The probability of such conditions in combination with wind direction towards Danish territory is estimated. Doses to bone marrow, lungs, GI-tract and thyroid are calculated using dose models developed at Risø. These doses are found to be consistent with doses calculated with the models used in WASH-1400.
Results of the application of apparatus AKA-2 for the formation of compressive anastomoses under complicated conditions are discussed. Among them are: acute and chronic ileus, peritonitis, diabetes mellitus etc. Common negative factors for all the patients were symptoms of secondary immune deficiency and specific endogenous intoxication resulting from chronic internal irradiation by radionuclides (consequences of the disaster in Chernobyl atomic power station in 1986). In 1987-1990 operations were performed on 84 patients. Compressive colonic anastomoses were made with apparatus AKA-2. All the patients lived in Kiev and neighbouring regions from 1986. From the patients operated upon 81% had colorectal cancer localized in left portions of the colon, 19% of the patients had inflammatory diseases of the colon. The application of compressive colonic anastomoses under the complicated conditions proved to be sufficiently reliable in the nearest and late terms of observations.
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effects of ionizing radiation and to dispel fear associated with the use of radioactivity in medical diagnosis and therapy. DESIGN: Studies of populations in geographic areas of increased cosmic radiation and high natural background radiation, radiation-exposed workers, patients with medical exposure to radioactivity, and accidental exposure are reviewed. RESULTS: No reproducible evidence shows harmful effects associated with increases in background radiation of 3 to 10 times the usual levels. American military personnel who participated in nuclear testing had no increase in leukemia or other cancers. Among 22,000 patients with hyperthyroidism treated with 131I (mean dose, 10 rem), no increased incidence of leukemia was found in comparison with 14,000 similar patients who received other treatment. A 20-year follow-up of 35,000 patients who underwent 131I uptake tests for evaluation of thyroid function revealed that those studied for other than a suspected tumor had only 60% of the thyroid cancers expected in a control group. Although early studies showed that high exposures to miners to radon and its daughters resulted in a substantial increase in lung cancer, no evidence exists for an increase in lung cancer among nonsmokers exposed to increased radon levels in the home. CONCLUSION: Perhaps the association of radiation with the atomic bomb has created a climate of fear about the possible dangers of radiation at any level; however, no evidence indicates that current radiation exposures associated with medical usage are harmful.