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39 records – page 1 of 4.

Analysis of body-burden measurements of 137Cs and 40K in a Japanese group over a period of 5 years following the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75071
Source
Health Phys. 1996 Sep;71(3):320-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1996
Author
M. Uchiyama
Y. Nakamura
S. Kobayashi
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba-shi, Japan.
Source
Health Phys. 1996 Sep;71(3):320-5
Date
Sep-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Humans
Japan
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
A selected group of about 20 male researchers at the NIRS that reside in Chiba, Japan, was measured for total body content of radiocesium and 40K every 3 mo from February 1986 to May 1991. A whole-body counter at the NIRS was used to measure their radioactivity in a scanning mode of 5 cm min-1 in a shielded iron room with walls 20 cm in thickness. A maximum radiocesium level of 59 Bq was observed in May 1987. The annual change in the body burden decreased with an apparent half-time of 1.8 y after May 1987. The period of five years was sufficient to eliminate the effects of the accident in this group. Even in the most contaminated period, the dose from radiocesium was below 2 microSv y-1. The cumulative dose for 5 y was estimated to be 5.6 microSv, which is nearly equal to the total dose to the Japanese people caused by the artificial radionuclide fallout for the first year following the accident. It is much smaller than the committed dose of 82 microSv for internally deposited 137Cs resulting from nuclear explosions in 1961 and 1962 and the annual dose of 170 microSv from internal 40K. No detectable health risk was expected for the present group.
PubMed ID
8698573 View in PubMed
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[A pharmacokinetic approach to studying the uptake of 137Cs by children following the reactor accident at Chernobyl]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37958
Source
Nuklearmedizin. 1989 Dec;28(6):243-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1989
Author
U. Wellner
Author Affiliation
Institut für klinische und experimentelle Nuklearmedizin, Universitätzu Köln, BRD.
Source
Nuklearmedizin. 1989 Dec;28(6):243-6
Date
Dec-1989
Language
German
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Child
English Abstract
Germany, West
Humans
Models, Biological
Nuclear Reactors
Ukraine
Abstract
The course of 137Cs content of children after the reactor accident of Chernobyl measured by means of a whole-body counter could be reconstructed theoretically by a pharmacokinetic model. The children of the kindergarten of the hospital of the University of Cologne accumulated during the vegetation periods 1986/87 (I) 86.9, 1987/88 (II) 114.4 and 1988/89 (III) 24.4 Bq 137Cs per kg body weight.
PubMed ID
2608448 View in PubMed
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Assessment of current exposure of the population living in the Techa River basin from radioactive releases of the Mayak facility.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165656
Source
Health Phys. 2007 Feb;92(2):134-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Mikhail I Balonov
Gennady Y Bruk
Vladislav Y Golikov
Anatoly N Barkovsky
Eleonora M Kravtsova
Olga S Kravtosova
Akhat A Mubasarov
Vladimir N Shutov
Irena G Travnikova
Brenda J Howard
Justin Emrys Brown
Per Strand
Author Affiliation
Institute of Radiation Hygiene (IRH), St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Health Phys. 2007 Feb;92(2):134-47
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear Warfare
Radiation Monitoring - statistics & numerical data
Radioactive Pollutants - analysis
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Rivers
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
Soil Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Strontium Radioisotopes - analysis
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Abstract
Current doses arising from external and internal pathways have been estimated for the residents of two villages, Muslumovo and Brodokalmak, alongside the Techa River, which was contaminated by radioactive releases from the Mayak production facility. The dose estimates are based on numerous environmental measurements supplemented by further human whole body measurements and studies on occupational and dietary habits of Slavic and Turkish ethnic groups. Estimated doses arise mainly from use of the contaminated floodplains alongside the Techa River. The current average annual effective dose attributable to Cs and Sr in the environment, under conditions where restrictions on some river-related activities are in place, may exceed the Russian national action level of 1 mSv only in the hypothetical critical group of herdsmen in Muslumovo. The dose to this critical group in Brodokalmak is assessed to be 3 times less than that in Muslumovo and 2 fold below the action level. The external and internal exposures give comparable contributions to the total dose in both settlements and population groups: 47% and 53% in Muslumovo and 40% and 60% in Brodokalmak, respectively. About one quarter to one half of the internal dose in adults arises from the intake of Sr. In order to avoid substantial increases in the dose received by Muslumovo residents, it is expedient to prolong the current policy of restriction of some river-related population activities in this village.
PubMed ID
17220715 View in PubMed
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Assessment of radiocesium incorporation in Austrians after the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37261
Source
Health Phys. 1991 Feb;60(2):199-202
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1991
Author
E. Havlik
H. Bergmann
Author Affiliation
Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of Vienna Medical School, Austria.
Source
Health Phys. 1991 Feb;60(2):199-202
Date
Feb-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Austria
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Reactors
Population Surveillance
Radioactive fallout
Ukraine
Abstract
Residents of Vienna, Austria were whole-body counted for radiocesium content due to fallout deposited after the Chernobyl accident. Data for a 2-y period were compared with prior estimates of radiocesium body burden based on food consumption. Our results suggest that the prior estimates be revised and the rejection limit be increased by a factor of 2 for contaminated food.
PubMed ID
1989941 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular diseases in the cohort of workers first employed at Mayak PA in 1948-1958.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141764
Source
Radiat Res. 2010 Aug;174(2):155-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
T V Azizova
C R Muirhead
M B Druzhinina
E S Grigoryeva
E V Vlasenko
M V Sumina
J A O'Hagan
W. Zhang
R G E Haylock
N. Hunter
Author Affiliation
Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia. clinic@subi.su
Source
Radiat Res. 2010 Aug;174(2):155-68
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alpha Particles
Body Burden
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - mortality - radionuclide imaging
Cohort Studies
Employment
Female
Humans
Male
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - mortality - radionuclide imaging
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology - mortality - radionuclide imaging
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - mortality
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium - analysis
Poisson Distribution
Radiation Dosage
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
Incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular diseases have been studied in a cohort of 12,210 workers first employed at one of the main plants of the Mayak nuclear facility during 1948-1958 and followed up to 31 December 2000. Information on external gamma-ray doses is available for virtually all of these workers (99.9%); the mean total gamma-ray dose (+/-SD) was 0.91 +/- 0.95 Gy (99% percentile 3.9 Gy) for men and 0.65 +/- 0.75 Gy (99% percentile 2.99 Gy) for women. In contrast, plutonium body burden was measured for only 30.0% of workers; among those monitored, the mean cumulative liver dose from plutonium alpha exposure (+/- SD) was 0.40 +/- 1.15 Gy (99% percentile 5.88 Gy) for men and 0.81 +/- 4.60 Gy (99% percentile 15.95 Gy) for women. A total of 3751 cases of ischemic heart disease (IHD), including 683 cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and 1495 IHD deaths, including 338 AMI deaths, were identified in the study cohort during the follow-up period. Having adjusted for non-radiation factors, there were statistically significant increasing trends with both total external gamma-ray dose and internal liver dose in IHD incidence. The trend with internal dose was weaker and was not statistically significant after adjusting for external dose, whereas the external dose trend was little changed after adjusting for internal dose. The trend with external dose in IHD mortality was not statistically significantly greater than zero but was consistent with the corresponding trend in IHD incidence. The estimated trend in IHD mortality with internal dose was lower and was not statistically significant once adjustment was made for external dose. There was a statistically significantly increasing trend in AMI incidence but not AMI incidence with external dose. The risk estimates for IHD in relation to external radiation are generally compatible with those from other large occupational studies and the Japanese A-bomb survivors.
PubMed ID
20681782 View in PubMed
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[Cesium 137 whole body measurements in persons in the Vienna area since June 1986]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature39041
Source
Strahlenschutz Forsch Prax. 1987;29:51-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1987

[Chernobyl accident: dosimetric evaluation and estimation of risks]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature74102
Source
Radiol Med (Torino). 1986 Oct;72(10):699-704
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1986
Author
S. De Crescenzo
G. Tosi
M. Giacomelli
M. Granata
M. Pertosa
M. Tamponi
M. Verini
D. Zanni
Source
Radiol Med (Torino). 1986 Oct;72(10):699-704
Date
Oct-1986
Language
Italian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
English Abstract
Evaluation Studies
Female
Humans
Italy
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive Pollutants - analysis
Radiometry - methods
Risk
Soil Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Ukraine
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Abstract
The results of dosimetric evaluations carried out after Chernobyl accident in the Health Physics Department of Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital (Milan) on air, rain and ground contamination are presented. The results obtained show that the incidence of stochastic late effects, both somatic and genetic, will be so low that practically will not be distinguishable from "natural" incidence.
Notes
Erratum In: Radiol Med (Torino) 1986 Dec;72(12):986
PubMed ID
3775087 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Science. 1986 Sep 5;233(4768):1029-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-5-1986

The Chernobyl reactor accident: the impact on the United Kingdom.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature60094
Source
Br J Radiol. 1987 Dec;60(720):1147-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1987
Author
F A Fry
Author Affiliation
National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Oxon.
Source
Br J Radiol. 1987 Dec;60(720):1147-58
Date
Dec-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - economics
Adult
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Animals
Environmental monitoring
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Great Britain
Humans
Infant
Milk
Nuclear Reactors
Radiation Dosage
Ukraine
Abstract
I had originally thought that by this time, nearly 1 year after the Chernobyl reactor accident, I would be in a position to describe fully its impact on the UK in terms of radiation doses, economics and future emergency planning. However, only one of these is reasonably clear-the radiological impact. We shall continue our measurements, particularly those of activity in persons, and doubtless we shall refine our estimates of collective dose, but they are unlikely to change significantly. We can therefore be certain that the radiological impact on the UK was small and that the health effects will not be detectable. Predictions of the consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides have in the past, perforce, relied upon models of environmental transfer. Data on which the models are based were obtained from investigations of weapons fallout and of routine releases from nuclear facilities. The Chernobyl accident provided a situation of activity deposition that was well characterised in time and in geographical distribution, and measurements along environmental pathways will allow us to validate or refine our models. This accidental deposition reinforced the importance of some effects that we knew about-such as the importance of wet deposition-and will cause us to consider the need to take account of specific situations that we had not considered previously in adequate detail-in particular, the behaviour of radionuclides in upland ecosystems. The overall economic impact is not yet clear and, unfortunately, is unlikely to become so until all restrictions on the movement and slaughter of sheep are removed and the farmers have received compensation. The effect on international trade may never be quantified. Some international agencies are evaluating the consequences of Chernobyl and their reports will become available during 1987. International agreements on intervention levels are also still under discussion and it would be premature to speculate about the need for any fundamental revisions to Emergency Reference Levels and derived quantities. Similarly, we are aware of the need for revision of the national emergency plan, but we are awaiting the government decision on this. One effect of the Chernobyl accident, however, is clear: the public's awareness of radiation issues has reached a new height. Members of the public demand information and advice, and better means of communicating these must be provided. Advice to take some action may provoke unnecessary alarm, but advice that no action is required may be distrusted. We cautiously assume that any dose, no matter how small, has some deleterious effect and yet, in situations of accidental releases, we may tell the public that no actions are required to reduced doses that they may consider appreciable and avoidable. We clearly need to promote a better understanding of the nature and acceptability of the risk of radiation doses in such circumstances and we intend to do so.
PubMed ID
3690162 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Comprehensive assessment of the effects of the Chernobyl accident on the German population]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature39040
Source
Strahlenschutz Forsch Prax. 1987;29:69-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
1987

39 records – page 1 of 4.