Americium-241 (²4¹Am) is the second most significant radiation hazard after ²³?Pu at some of the Mayak Production Association facilities. This study summarizes current data on the accumulation, distribution, and excretion of americium compared with plutonium in different organs from former Mayak PA workers. Americium and plutonium were measured in autopsy and bioassay samples and correlated with the presence or absence of chronic disease and with biological transportability of the aerosols encountered at different workplaces. The relative accumulation of ²4¹Am was found to be increasing in the workers over time. This is likely from ²4¹Pu that increases with time in reprocessed fuel and from the increased concentrations of ²4¹Am and ²4¹Pu in inhaled alpha-active aerosols. While differences were observed in lung retention with exposures to different industrial compounds with different transportabilities (i.e., dioxide and nitrates), there were no significant differences in lung retention between americium and plutonium within each transportability group. In the non-pulmonary organs, the highest ratios of ²4¹Am/²4¹Am + SPu were observed in the skeleton. The relative ratios of americium in the skeleton versus liver were significantly greater than for plutonium. The relative amounts of americium and plutonium found in the skeleton compared with the liver were even greater in workers with documented chronic liver diseases. Excretion rates of ²4¹Am in ‘‘healthy’’ workers were estimated using bioassay and autopsy data. The data suggest that impaired liver function leads to reduced hepatic ²4¹Am retention, leading to increased ²4¹Am excretion.
This report examines the claim that Irish mortality in the second quarter (April-June) of 1986 increased due to the cloud of radioactive material released by the damaged reactor in Chernobyl. Over the period 1971-1987, based on date of registration, the death rates in the second quarter showed marked year to year variation often exceeding that expected on the basis of chance alone. In 1986 the percentage of annual deaths occurring between April and June, and the death rate itself, were both significantly higher than in most other years between 1981 and 1987. The 1986 figures were not however, significantly higher than those observed in years prior to 1981. Since the distribution of mortality by cause was not consistent with the hypothesis relating low level radiation to immediate mortality, and since causality cannot be inferred from a temporal association per se, the Chernobyl accident cannot be implicated in the excess mortality observed in the second quarter of 1986.
An analysis was carried out of multiaberrant ("rogue") cells in lymphocytes of persons living in unpolluted areas (controls), and in areas chemically or radioactively (Chernobyl fall-out) polluted. The total number of analysed cells was 102,391, among these 10 cells with three and more aberrations were found. These multiaberrant cells occur in persons of both sexes and various ages living in regions with a moderate degree of mutagenic exposure. The main types of aberrations in multiaberrant cells were chromosome exchanges, accompanied by double fragments.
The paper describes the image of radiation menace. Basic differences in image parameters are revealed for some population groups. The psychological levels of the image are regarded as psychosocial phenomena. Some specific psychological consequences of mental regression are outlined in the paper.
The aim of the present study was the observation of the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the population in low endemic goitre area after mass iodine prophylaxis after the Chernobyl catastrophe and the estimation of TSH and thyroid hormones secretion in this population. On the basis of the investigations carried out we could conclude that the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the population with confirmed endemic goitre is comparable to the frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in the healthy population. ATA occurrence in children after iodine prophylaxis could confirm the hypothesis that thyroglobulin immunity is higher after iodine intake. The lower T3 concentration observed in the group with antithyroid autoantibodies suggests that autoantibodies may be involved in the thyroid hormones synthesis or peripheral conversion of thyroid hormones.
The paper deals with one of the most urgent aspects of irradiation hygiene, namely assessment of risk for irradiation-induced cancers of the thyroid. A model is described to predict high mortality rates of thyroidal cancer in the population due to the catastrophe at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. With the model, life-time risk rates involving sex and age at the moment of irradiation, as well as an irradiation mode.
Residents of Vienna, Austria were whole-body counted for radiocesium content due to fallout deposited after the Chernobyl accident. Data for a 2-y period were compared with prior estimates of radiocesium body burden based on food consumption. Our results suggest that the prior estimates be revised and the rejection limit be increased by a factor of 2 for contaminated food.
After the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, in the population of zones contaminated the malignant renal tumors was increased from 4.7 to 7.5 per 100,000 of total population. Cesium 137 (137Cs) constitutes 80-90% of the internal exposure of these people as well as eliminated through kidneys becomes an important risk factor. We present a case of a patient, residing in radiocontamined area, who consulted for abdominal pain and left flank mass. We review relevant literature and the management of these patients.