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334 records – page 1 of 34.

Source
Nature. 1987 Feb 12-18;325(6105):569
Publication Type
Article
Source
Nature. 1987 Feb 12-18;325(6105):569
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Humans
Neoplasms - mortality
Nuclear Reactors
Ukraine
PubMed ID
3808056 View in PubMed
Less detail

The 6th Klaas Breur memorial lecture, 1987. The Chernobyl accident--impact Western Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25858
Source
Radiother Oncol. 1988 May;12(1):1-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1988

131I dose to the human fetal thyroid in the Zagreb district, Yugoslavia, from the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65399
Source
Int J Radiat Biol. 1988 Aug;54(2):167-77
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1988
Author
M. Basic
B. Kasal
I. Simonovic
S. Jukic
Author Affiliation
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Hospital Centre-Rebro and Medical Faculty, Zagreb, Yugoslavia.
Source
Int J Radiat Biol. 1988 Aug;54(2):167-77
Date
Aug-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Female
Humans
Iodine Radioisotopes - metabolism
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Nuclear Reactors
Pregnancy
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive fallout
Thyroid Gland - metabolism
Ukraine
Yugoslavia
Abstract
The 131I activity was measured in 30 human fetal thyroids in Zagreb district after the Chernobyl accident. A model of radioiodine metabolism in the mother and human fetus which takes into account the age dependence of the uptake and retention of radioiodine in the fetal thyroid was developed. Having assessed that the total intake by the average mother was about 1330 Bq, a good correlation between calculated and measured fetal thyroid activities was found (r = 0.77, P less than 0.001). The fetal thyroid dose reached the maximum of 0.43 micro Gy/Bq intake at about the fifth month of gestation. It was concluded that the risk of having a child with a harmful trait due to 131I absorbed by the mother was negligible.
PubMed ID
2900274 View in PubMed
Less detail

137Cs concentration among children in areas contaminated with radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident: Mogilev and Gomel oblasts, Belarus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35663
Source
Health Phys. 1994 Sep;67(3):272-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1994
Author
M. Hoshi
Y. Shibata
S. Okajima
T. Takatsuji
S. Yamashita
H. Namba
N. Yokoyama
M. Izumi
S. Nagataki
K. Fujimura
Author Affiliation
Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Hiroshima University, Japan.
Source
Health Phys. 1994 Sep;67(3):272-5
Date
Sep-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adolescent
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Ukraine
Whole-Body Counting
Abstract
The level of radiation exposure in children in Belarus caused by the Chernobyl accident was investigated on the basis of whole body 137Cs count. The subjects were 10,062 children (4,762 boys and 5,300 girls) in Mogilev and Gomel, Belarus, who received Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project health examinations from May 1991 to December 1992 and who were 5-16 y old at the time of examination. The median whole body 137Cs count per body weight varied from 21-48 Bq kg-1 and from 28-126 Bq kg-1 in Mogilev oblast and Gomel oblast, respectively. (The "oblast" is the largest administrative district constituting the country. Belarus consists of 6 oblasts). Corresponding annual effective dose equivalents were all less than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y-1, but the observed levels in the children were considerably higher than the average level of 2.3 Bq kg-1 reported in the past for the former Soviet Union.
Notes
Comment In: Health Phys. 1995 May;68(5):733-57730075
PubMed ID
8056594 View in PubMed
Less detail

137Cs concentrations in lichens before and after the Chernobyl accident

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102073
Source
Health Physics. 1993 Jan;64(1):70-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1993
Author
Hofmann, W
Attarpour, N
Lettner, H
Türk, R
Source
Health Physics. 1993 Jan;64(1):70-73
Date
Jan-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Austria
Cesium Radioisotopes--analysis
Lichens--chemistry
Nuclear Reactors
Radioactive Fallout--analysis
Ukraine
Abstract
137Cs activities were measured in a variety of epigeic and epiphytic lichens in Austria before and after contamination by the Chernobyl fallout. For comparison, the activity of the naturally occurring 40K was also determined in each lichen sample. The high 137Cs activities found after Chernobyl suggest that lichens are suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the fallout pattern.
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The 1986 and 1988 UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) reports: findings and implications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25247
Source
Health Phys. 1990 Mar;58(3):241-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1990
Author
F A Mettler
W K Sinclair
L. Anspaugh
C. Edington
J H Harley
R C Ricks
P B Selby
E W Webster
H O Wyckoff
Author Affiliation
School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131.
Source
Health Phys. 1990 Mar;58(3):241-50
Date
Mar-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Background Radiation
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Japan
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced
Nuclear Reactors
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Genetics
Radiation, Ionizing
Risk
Ukraine
Abstract
The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has published a substantive series of reports concerning sources, effects, and risks of ionizing radiation. This article summarizes the highlights and conclusions from the most recent 1986 and 1988 reports. The present annual per person effective dose equivalent for the world's population is about 3 mSv. The majority of this (2.4 mSv) comes from natural background, and 0.4 to 1 mSv is from medical exposures. Other sources contribute less than 0.02 mSv annually. The worldwide collective effective dose equivalent annually is between 13 and 16 million person-Sv. The Committee assessed the collective effective dose equivalent to the population of the northern hemisphere from the reactor accident at Chernobyl and concluded that this is about 600,000 person-Sv. The Committee also reviewed risk estimates for radiation carcinogenesis which included the new Japanese dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These data indicate that risk coefficient estimates for high doses and high dose rate low-LET radiation in the Japanese population are approximately 3-10% Sv-1, depending on the projection model utilized. The Committee also indicated that, in calculation of such risks at low doses and low dose rates, a risk-reduction factor in the range of 2-10 may be considered.
PubMed ID
2312289 View in PubMed
Less detail

The accident at Chernobyl and outcome of pregnancy in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65309
Source
BMJ. 1989 May 20;298(6684):1384
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-20-1989
Author
M. Joffe
Source
BMJ. 1989 May 20;298(6684):1384
Date
May-20-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Female
Finland
Humans
Nuclear Reactors
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Ukraine
Notes
Comment On: BMJ. 1989 Apr 15;298(6679):995-72499391
PubMed ID
2502266 View in PubMed
Less detail

The accident at Chernobyl and outcome of pregnancy in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38150
Source
BMJ. 1989 Apr 15;298(6679):995-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-1989
Author
T. Harjulehto
T. Aro
H. Rita
T. Rytömaa
L. Saxén
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
BMJ. 1989 Apr 15;298(6679):995-7
Date
Apr-15-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - etiology
Accidents
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland
Geography
Humans
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Nuclear Reactors
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Radioactive Fallout - adverse effects
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in Finnish women after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986. DESIGN--Geographic and temporal cohort study. SETTING--Finland divided into three zones according to amount of radioactive fallout. SUBJECTS--All children who were exposed to radiation during their fetal development. Children born before any effects of the accident could be postulated--that is, between 1 January 1984 and 30 June 1986--served as controls. INTERVENTIONS--Children were divided into three temporal groups: controls, children who were expected to be born in August to December 1986, and children who were expected to be born in February to December 1987. They were also divided, separately, into three groups according to the three geographic zones. END POINT--Incidence of congenital malformations, preterm births, and perinatal deaths. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--There were no significant differences in the incidence of malformations or perinatal deaths among the three temporal and three geographic groups. A significant increase in preterm births occurred among children who were exposed to radiation during the first trimester whose mothers lived in zones 2 and 3, where the external dose rate and estimated surface activity of caesium-137 were highest. CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest that the amount of radioactive fallout that Finnish people were exposed to after the accident at Chernobyl was not high enough to cause fetal damage in children born at term. The higher incidence of premature births among malformed children in the most heavily polluted areas, however, remains unexplained.
Notes
Comment In: BMJ. 1989 May 20;298(6684):13842502266
PubMed ID
2499391 View in PubMed
Less detail

The accident at Chernobyl and trisomy 21 in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36798
Source
Mutat Res. 1992 Mar;275(2):81-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1992
Author
T. Harjulehto-Mervaala
R. Salonen
T. Aro
L. Saxén
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Mutat Res. 1992 Mar;275(2):81-6
Date
Mar-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Cesium Radioisotopes - adverse effects
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 - radiation effects
Cohort Studies
Down Syndrome - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Matched-Pair Analysis
Maternal Age
Nuclear Reactors
Power Plants
Pregnancy
Pregnancy, High-Risk
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Prevalence
Radioactive Fallout - adverse effects
Trisomy
Ukraine
Abstract
Our objective was to explore whether the radiation fallout in Finland after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986 led to an increased incidence of trisomy 21. In this geographic and temporal cohort study, the country was divided into three zones according to the amounts of radioactive fallout and internal radiation caused by two cesium isotopes. The 518 cytologically verified cases of trisomy 21 were divided into a control group (conceived before the accident), and a study group of children whose expected dates of birth were in the post-accident years 1987-1988, i.e., pregnancies commenced after May 1986. The cases were also divided into three subgroups according to the zones of radiation. There were no significant differences in prevalence of trisomy 21 between the control and study groups nor between the three zones in spite of the significant differences in the levels of radiation and in the body burden that prevailed throughout the study period. Power estimates showed that in the two zones of lower radiation, an increase of 0.5% in the prevalence would have been detected with a power of 0.85, and in the somewhat smaller zone of the highest radiation, with a power of 0.70. The study lends no further support to the view that the low radiation fallout in western Europe would have been causally associated with trisomy 21.
PubMed ID
1379341 View in PubMed
Less detail

[A computing laboratory-clinical system in the screening of malignant tumors: study of the state of the antioxidant system and level of cellular proliferation markers among the population from the Chernobyl AES accident area]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24950
Source
Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR. 1991;(8):36-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
N A Grigorovich
Source
Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR. 1991;(8):36-40
Date
1991
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Antioxidants
Biological Markers
English Abstract
Humans
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - diagnosis - prevention & control
Nuclear Reactors
Radiation Dosage
Risk factors
Software
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
The author bases and describes the computing laboratory and clinical system for screening groups at a higher risk for malignant neoplasms whose incidence is likely to increase due to irradiation. Two years after the disaster the detected group at a higher risk was 2-2.4 times larger than the control group among persons who received the total irradiation dose 5 rem and over as well as among persons who are to be removed from the area polluted with radionuclides whatever the dose. As the time elapsed since the disaster increases, the number of subjects with a higher level of biomarkers also grows. It is advisable that this system be introduced in all fields of the practical health care in the polluted and control areas to carry out goal-oriented treatment and diagnostic measures in the selected population groups.
PubMed ID
1950158 View in PubMed
Less detail

334 records – page 1 of 34.