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Cancer incidence among nuclear workers in Russia based on data from the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering: a preliminary analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194679
Source
Radiat Res. 2001 Jun;155(6):801-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
V K Ivanov
A F Tsyb
E M Rastopchin
A I Gorsky
M A Maksyutov
V I Vayzer
Y V Suspitsin
Y V Fedorov
Author Affiliation
Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk, Russia.
Source
Radiat Res. 2001 Jun;155(6):801-8
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure
Power Plants
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
One group that has the potential to be exposed to radiation is workers in the nuclear industry. Results of a systematic medical follow-up and dosimetric monitoring of these workers can form the basis for a study of the relationship between cancer incidence and radiation dose. As part of such efforts in Russia, a major institution of the nuclear industry with an established medical care unit, archiving capabilities, and dosimetry department was selected: the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk. In the study, a comparative analysis of cancer incidence rates for the IPPE workers and for the general population of Russia in 1991-1997 was carried out. The subjects were the IPPE workers hired before 1981. This restriction was imposed to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible latent period in the development of solid cancers. Thus the possibility of including persons who already had the disease at the time when they were hired was minimized. The analysis is based on information about 158 cancer cases, including 24 cancers in persons under individual dosimetric monitoring. A statistically significant excess in cancer incidence was found among the IPPE workers compared with a comparison population (the general population of Russia) for some types of cancers. The SIR values for all cancers (ICD-9: 140-208) is 0.93 (95% CI 0.76, 1.12) for males and 1.42 (95% CI 1.06, 1.87) for females. A statistically significant excess for all cancers was also observed for residents of Obninsk compared to the control comparison population. The corresponding SIR value was 1.20 (95% CI 1.12, 1.28) for males and 1.58 (95% CI 1.49, 1.69) for females. An important reason for the observed excess in cancer incidence compared to the control population may be the higher level of health care in the so-called nuclear cities of Russia which may have resulted in increased diagnosis and registration of cancers. A statistically significant dependence of the cancer incidence on the dose of ionizing radiation was not established. The excess relative risk per gray for all types of cancer was 0.91 (95% CI -2.75, 4.61) for males and 0.40 (95% CI -6.94, 7.83) for females. These estimates should be considered to be preliminary, as the number of cases considered in the analysis of the dose response is small (17 males and 7 females).
PubMed ID
11352762 View in PubMed
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Complex chromosome aberrations persist in individuals many years after occupational exposure to densely ionizing radiation: an mFISH study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174652
Source
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005 Sep;44(1):1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
M Prakash Hande
Tamara V Azizova
Ludmilla E Burak
Valentin F Khokhryakov
Charles R Geard
David J Brenner
Author Affiliation
Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA.
Source
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005 Sep;44(1):1-9
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromosome Aberrations - radiation effects
Chromosomes, Human - radiation effects
Humans
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium
Radiation, Ionizing
Radon
Russia
Translocation, Genetic
Abstract
Long-lived, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of particular mutagenic agents are much sought after and potentially have broad applications in the fields of cancer biology, epidemiology, and prevention. Many clastogens induce a spectrum of chromosome aberrations, and some of them can be exploited as biomarkers of exposure. Densely ionizing radiation, for example, alpha particle radiation (from radon or plutonium) and neutron radiation, preferentially induces complex chromosome aberrations, which can be detected by the 24-color multifluor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) technique. We report the detection and quantification of stable complex chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of healthy former nuclear-weapons workers, who were exposed many years ago to plutonium, gamma rays, or both, at the Mayak weapons complex in Russia. We analyzed peripheral-blood lymphocytes from these individuals for the presence of persistent complex chromosome aberrations. A significantly elevated frequency of complex chromosome translocations was detected in the highly exposed plutonium workers but not in the group exposed only to high doses of gamma radiation. No such differences were found for simple chromosomal aberrations. The results suggest that stable complex chromosomal translocations represent a long-lived, quantitative, low-background biomarker of densely ionizing radiation for human populations exposed many years ago.
PubMed ID
15912529 View in PubMed
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Concept of optimisation of the radiation protection system in the nuclear sector: management of individual cancer risks and providing targeted health care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166251
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2006 Dec;26(4):361-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
V K Ivanov
A F Tsyb
A M Agapov
A P Panfilov
O V Kaidalov
A I Gorski
M A Maksioutov
Y V Suspitsin
V I Vaizer
Author Affiliation
Medical Radiological Research Centre of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 4 Korolev Street, Obninsk 249036, Russia.
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2006 Dec;26(4):361-74
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Burden
Delivery of Health Care - organization & administration
Humans
Incidence
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors - statistics & numerical data
Quality Assurance, Health Care - organization & administration
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - statistics & numerical data
Radiation Protection - methods
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
The paper discusses the provision of targeted health care to nuclear workers in Russia based on radiation-epidemiological estimates of cancer risks. Cancer incidence rates are analysed for the workers of the Institute of Physical Power Engineering (the first nuclear installation in the world) who were subjected to individual dosimetric monitoring from 1950 to 2002. The value of excess relative risk for solid cancers was found to be ERR Gy(-1) = 0.24 (95% CI: -4.22; 7.96). It has been shown that 81.8% of the persons covered by individual dosimetric monitoring have potential attributive risk up to 5%, and the risk is more than 10% for 3.7% of the workers. Among the detected cancer cases, 73.5% of the individuals show an attributive risk up to 5% and the risk is in excess of 10% for 3.9% of the workers. Principles for the provision of targeted health care, given voluntary health insurance, are outlined.
PubMed ID
17146121 View in PubMed
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[Functional status of the pituitary-thyroid system in children and adolescents exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37343
Source
Med Radiol (Mosk). 1991;36(7):4-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
A F Tsyb
E G Matveenko
V F Gorobets
L M Tsypliakovskaia
V K Ivanov
O E Stadnik
S A Airapetov
E V Nilova
V N Omel'chenko
M P Borovikova
Source
Med Radiol (Mosk). 1991;36(7):4-7
Date
1991
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adolescent
Child
English Abstract
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Nuclear Reactors
Pituitary Gland - physiology - radiation effects
Thyroid Gland - physiology - radiation effects
Thyrotropin - blood
Thyroxine - blood
Triiodothyronine - blood
Ukraine
Abstract
The paper is concerned with the results of a follow-up over the period of 1986-1989 of function of the hypophyseo-thyroid system in children and adolescents (approximately 6000 persons), residing in the South-West of the Kaluga Region, where radiation fallouts were observed after the Chernobyl accident. The results were based upon the analysis of medical examinations and determination of the blood levels of TSH, T4 and T3. A certain functional activation of the thyroid system was observed in a majority of the examinees. A conclusion has been made of a necessity of a long-term follow-up of the thyroid of persons who received radioactive iodine in childhood.
PubMed ID
1881288 View in PubMed
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Past exposure to densely ionizing radiation leaves a unique permanent signature in the genome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185956
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 2003 May;72(5):1162-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
M Prakash Hande
Tamara V Azizova
Charles R Geard
Ludmilla E Burak
Catherine R Mitchell
Valentin F Khokhryakov
Evgeny K Vasilenko
David J Brenner
Author Affiliation
Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 2003 May;72(5):1162-70
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alpha Particles - adverse effects
Bone Marrow - radiation effects
Chromosome Aberrations
Chromosome Breakage
Chromosome Inversion
Chromosome Painting
Chromosomes, Human - radiation effects - ultrastructure
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5 - radiation effects - ultrastructure
Gamma Rays - adverse effects
Genome, Human
Humans
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects
Lymphocytes - pathology - radiation effects
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Plutonium - adverse effects
Radiation Dosage
Radiation, Ionizing
Reference Values
Russia
Time
Translocation, Genetic
USSR
Abstract
Speculation has long surrounded the question of whether past exposure to ionizing radiation leaves a unique permanent signature in the genome. Intrachromosomal rearrangements or deletions are produced much more efficiently by densely ionizing radiation than by chemical mutagens, x-rays, or endogenous aging processes. Until recently, such stable intrachromosomal aberrations have been very hard to detect, but a new chromosome band painting technique has made their detection practical. We report the detection and quantification of stable intrachromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of healthy former nuclear-weapons workers who were exposed to plutonium many years ago. Even many years after occupational exposure, more than half the blood cells of the healthy plutonium workers contain large (>6 Mb) intrachromosomal rearrangements. The yield of these aberrations was highly correlated with plutonium dose to the bone marrow. The control groups contained very few such intrachromosomal aberrations. Quantification of this large-scale chromosomal damage in human populations exposed many years earlier will lead to new insights into the mechanisms and risks of cytogenetic damage.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12679897 View in PubMed
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Revisiting nuclear power plant safety.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18690
Source
Science. 2003 Jan 10;299(5604):201-3; author reply 201-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-10-2003
Author
David J Brenner
Source
Science. 2003 Jan 10;299(5604):201-3; author reply 201-3
Date
Jan-10-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Humans
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - etiology
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Reactors
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Terrorism
Ukraine - epidemiology
United States
Notes
Comment On: Science. 2002 Sep 20;297(5589):1997-912242425
PubMed ID
12523358 View in PubMed
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Stable intrachromosomal biomarkers of past exposure to densely ionizing radiation in several chromosomes of exposed individuals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178301
Source
Radiat Res. 2004 Sep;162(3):257-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Catherine R Mitchell
Tamara V Azizova
M Prakash Hande
Ludmilla E Burak
Josephine M Tsakok
Valentin F Khokhryakov
Charles R Geard
David J Brenner
Author Affiliation
Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. cm2073@columbia.edu
Source
Radiat Res. 2004 Sep;162(3):257-63
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body Burden
Chromosome Aberrations - radiation effects - statistics & numerical data
Chromosome Banding - methods
Chromosomes, Human - radiation effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Gamma Rays
Genetic Markers - radiation effects
Humans
Leukocytes - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Plutonium
Radiation Dosage
Radiation, Ionizing
Radiometry - methods
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
A multicolor banding (mBAND) fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used to investigate the presence inhuman populations of a stable biomarker-intrachromosomal chromosome aberrations-of past exposure to high-LET radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from healthy Russian nuclear workers occupationally exposed from 1949 onward to either plutonium, gamma rays or both. Metaphase spreads were produced and chromosomes 1 and 2 were hybridized with mBAND FISH probes and scored for intra-chromosomal aberrations. A large yield of intrachromosomal aberrations was observed in both chromosomes of the individuals exposed to high doses of plutonium, whereas there was no significant increase over the (low) background control rate in the population who were exposed to high doses of gamma rays. Interchromosome aberration yields were similar in both the high plutonium and the high gamma-ray groups. These results for chromosome 1 and 2 confirm and extend data published previously for chromosome 5. Intrachromosomal aberrations thus represent a potential biomarker for past exposure to high-LET radiations such as alpha particles and neutrons and could possibly be used as a biodosimeter to estimate both the dose and type of radiation exposure in previously exposed populations.
PubMed ID
15378838 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.