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Complex chromosome aberrations persist in individuals many years after occupational exposure to densely ionizing radiation: an mFISH study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174652
Source
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005 Sep;44(1):1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
M Prakash Hande
Tamara V Azizova
Ludmilla E Burak
Valentin F Khokhryakov
Charles R Geard
David J Brenner
Author Affiliation
Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA.
Source
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005 Sep;44(1):1-9
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromosome Aberrations - radiation effects
Chromosomes, Human - radiation effects
Humans
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium
Radiation, Ionizing
Radon
Russia
Translocation, Genetic
Abstract
Long-lived, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of particular mutagenic agents are much sought after and potentially have broad applications in the fields of cancer biology, epidemiology, and prevention. Many clastogens induce a spectrum of chromosome aberrations, and some of them can be exploited as biomarkers of exposure. Densely ionizing radiation, for example, alpha particle radiation (from radon or plutonium) and neutron radiation, preferentially induces complex chromosome aberrations, which can be detected by the 24-color multifluor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) technique. We report the detection and quantification of stable complex chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of healthy former nuclear-weapons workers, who were exposed many years ago to plutonium, gamma rays, or both, at the Mayak weapons complex in Russia. We analyzed peripheral-blood lymphocytes from these individuals for the presence of persistent complex chromosome aberrations. A significantly elevated frequency of complex chromosome translocations was detected in the highly exposed plutonium workers but not in the group exposed only to high doses of gamma radiation. No such differences were found for simple chromosomal aberrations. The results suggest that stable complex chromosomal translocations represent a long-lived, quantitative, low-background biomarker of densely ionizing radiation for human populations exposed many years ago.
PubMed ID
15912529 View in PubMed
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Cytogenetic effects in lymphocytes from children exposed to radiation fall-out after the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34042
Source
Mutat Res. 1997 Dec 12;395(2-3):249-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-12-1997
Author
L. Padovani
L. Stronati
F. Mauro
A. Testa
M. Appolloni
P. Anzidei
D. Caporossi
B. Tedeschi
P. Vernole
Author Affiliation
Environment Department, CR ENEA Casaçcia, Rome, Italy.
Source
Mutat Res. 1997 Dec 12;395(2-3):249-54
Date
Dec-12-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Byelarus
Child
Chromosome Aberrations
Comparative Study
Female
Humans
Lymphocytes - radiation effects
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Ukraine
Abstract
In a previous paper we reported that a group of children exposed to ionizing radiation following the Chernobyl accident exhibited an appreciable number of chromosome breaks and rearrangements reflecting the persistence of a radiation-induced damage. The results suggested that the children were still exposed to radioactive contamination through consumer foodstuff and life styles. In the present paper, 31 exposed children have been considered together with a control group of 11 children with the aim to confirm previous results. All children underwent whole-body counter (WBC) measures and conventional cytogenetic analysis. The frequency of chromosome aberrations detected by conventional cytogenetics in the group of children chronically exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation resulted in significant differences with respect to the control group. The present work suggests that, for these groups of children, even if the frequency of aberrations is very low and the observation of statistically significant differences is consequently a problem, a persistently abnormal cytogenetic picture is still present several years after the accident.
PubMed ID
9465937 View in PubMed
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Cytogenetic study in lymphocytes from children exposed to ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36157
Source
Mutat Res. 1993 Sep;319(1):55-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1993
Author
L. Padovani
D. Caporossi
B. Tedeschi
P. Vernole
B. Nicoletti
F. Mauro
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological and Health Effects, ENEA Casaccia, Rome, Italy.
Source
Mutat Res. 1993 Sep;319(1):55-60
Date
Sep-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Byelarus
Cesium Radioisotopes - adverse effects
Child
Chromosome Aberrations
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Explosions
Female
Humans
Lymphocytes - radiation effects
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Power Plants
Russia
Time Factors
Ukraine
Whole-Body Counting
Abstract
The present study concerns the monitoring of children from the Byelorussian, Ukrainian and Russian republics exposed to the fall-out of the Chernobyl accident. Cytogenetic analyses have been performed on 41 children coming from different areas and exhibiting varying amounts of 137Cs internal contamination, as evaluated by whole-body counter (WBC) analysis. On a total of 28,670 metaphases scored, radiation-induced chromosome damage is still present, although at a very low frequency. Due to the very low fraction of dicentrics, because of the time elapsed from the accident and the relatively low doses of exposure, radiobiological dosimetry is not possible for these children. However, considering that the WBC data indicate that the children are still exposed to 137Cs contamination, the observed occurrence of stable chromosome rearrangements and breaks may represent the persisting effect of continuous low doses of radiation. The present study also indicates that the parallel use of internal contamination dosimetry and cytogenetics could be usefully employed to monitor individual exposure to radiation and to define further management measures.
PubMed ID
7690459 View in PubMed
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Do human lymphocytes exposed to the fallout of the Chernobyl accident exhibit an adaptive response? III. Challenge with bleomycin in lymphocytes from children hit by the initial acute dose of ionizing radiation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34715
Source
Mutat Res. 1996 Jul 5;354(1):77-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-5-1996
Author
B. Tedeschi
D. Caporossi
P. Vernole
L. Padovani
F. Mauro
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.
Source
Mutat Res. 1996 Jul 5;354(1):77-80
Date
Jul-5-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adaptation, Physiological
Adolescent
Anti-Bacterial Agents - toxicity
Bleomycin - toxicity
Child
Chromosome Aberrations
Female
Humans
Lymphocytes - drug effects - radiation effects
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Power Plants
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Ukraine
Abstract
In the present paper, we report data on the possible adaptive response, induced in vivo by exposure to ionizing radiation to a challenge treatment with the radiomimetic glycopeptide bleomycin (BLM). Lymphocytes from children living in Pripjat at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and thus hit by the initial acute dose of ionizing radiation, were treated for the last 5 h of culture with 0.004 U/ml BLM. Significantly lower chromosome damage was found only in lymphocytes from children who, independently of the initial acute exposure to ionizing radiation, still showed a 137Cs internal contamination, due to persistent continuous exposure to low doses of radiation. The present results indicate that past exposure to acute high dose of ionizing radiation does not interfere with resistance to BLM which is related to internal contamination.
PubMed ID
8692209 View in PubMed
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Past exposure to densely ionizing radiation leaves a unique permanent signature in the genome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185956
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 2003 May;72(5):1162-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
M Prakash Hande
Tamara V Azizova
Charles R Geard
Ludmilla E Burak
Catherine R Mitchell
Valentin F Khokhryakov
Evgeny K Vasilenko
David J Brenner
Author Affiliation
Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 2003 May;72(5):1162-70
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alpha Particles - adverse effects
Bone Marrow - radiation effects
Chromosome Aberrations
Chromosome Breakage
Chromosome Inversion
Chromosome Painting
Chromosomes, Human - radiation effects - ultrastructure
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5 - radiation effects - ultrastructure
Gamma Rays - adverse effects
Genome, Human
Humans
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects
Lymphocytes - pathology - radiation effects
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Plutonium - adverse effects
Radiation Dosage
Radiation, Ionizing
Reference Values
Russia
Time
Translocation, Genetic
USSR
Abstract
Speculation has long surrounded the question of whether past exposure to ionizing radiation leaves a unique permanent signature in the genome. Intrachromosomal rearrangements or deletions are produced much more efficiently by densely ionizing radiation than by chemical mutagens, x-rays, or endogenous aging processes. Until recently, such stable intrachromosomal aberrations have been very hard to detect, but a new chromosome band painting technique has made their detection practical. We report the detection and quantification of stable intrachromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of healthy former nuclear-weapons workers who were exposed to plutonium many years ago. Even many years after occupational exposure, more than half the blood cells of the healthy plutonium workers contain large (>6 Mb) intrachromosomal rearrangements. The yield of these aberrations was highly correlated with plutonium dose to the bone marrow. The control groups contained very few such intrachromosomal aberrations. Quantification of this large-scale chromosomal damage in human populations exposed many years earlier will lead to new insights into the mechanisms and risks of cytogenetic damage.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12679897 View in PubMed
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Revisiting nuclear power plant safety.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18690
Source
Science. 2003 Jan 10;299(5604):201-3; author reply 201-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-10-2003
Author
David J Brenner
Source
Science. 2003 Jan 10;299(5604):201-3; author reply 201-3
Date
Jan-10-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Humans
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - etiology
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Reactors
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Terrorism
Ukraine - epidemiology
United States
Notes
Comment On: Science. 2002 Sep 20;297(5589):1997-912242425
PubMed ID
12523358 View in PubMed
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Stable intrachromosomal biomarkers of past exposure to densely ionizing radiation in several chromosomes of exposed individuals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178301
Source
Radiat Res. 2004 Sep;162(3):257-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Catherine R Mitchell
Tamara V Azizova
M Prakash Hande
Ludmilla E Burak
Josephine M Tsakok
Valentin F Khokhryakov
Charles R Geard
David J Brenner
Author Affiliation
Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. cm2073@columbia.edu
Source
Radiat Res. 2004 Sep;162(3):257-63
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body Burden
Chromosome Aberrations - radiation effects - statistics & numerical data
Chromosome Banding - methods
Chromosomes, Human - radiation effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Gamma Rays
Genetic Markers - radiation effects
Humans
Leukocytes - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Reactors
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Plutonium
Radiation Dosage
Radiation, Ionizing
Radiometry - methods
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
A multicolor banding (mBAND) fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used to investigate the presence inhuman populations of a stable biomarker-intrachromosomal chromosome aberrations-of past exposure to high-LET radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from healthy Russian nuclear workers occupationally exposed from 1949 onward to either plutonium, gamma rays or both. Metaphase spreads were produced and chromosomes 1 and 2 were hybridized with mBAND FISH probes and scored for intra-chromosomal aberrations. A large yield of intrachromosomal aberrations was observed in both chromosomes of the individuals exposed to high doses of plutonium, whereas there was no significant increase over the (low) background control rate in the population who were exposed to high doses of gamma rays. Interchromosome aberration yields were similar in both the high plutonium and the high gamma-ray groups. These results for chromosome 1 and 2 confirm and extend data published previously for chromosome 5. Intrachromosomal aberrations thus represent a potential biomarker for past exposure to high-LET radiations such as alpha particles and neutrons and could possibly be used as a biodosimeter to estimate both the dose and type of radiation exposure in previously exposed populations.
PubMed ID
15378838 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.