The paper considers the radiation doses of the thyroid gland in the inhabitants from the Ukrainian SSR areas (Kiev, Zhitomir, Chernigov, and Vinnitsa Regions), which have been obtained by instrumental studies of thyroidal radioactivity in May-June, 1986, and calculated by the most conservative single-dose administration model. A hygienic evaluation has been made of the findings, taking into account the age and residence. The cumulative irradiation doses of the thyroid have been estimated for children and adults. Possible late sequelae for the areas in question may account for 1060 and 300 thyroid carcinoma cases during the whole life for children and adults, respectively.
From May to August 1987, 137Cs activity was measured in a total-body counter (4 pi counter) in 33 premature and mature newborns (group I), 40 infants and young children up to 2 4/12 years of age (group II), and 15 children between 3 and 6 8/12 years (group III), all from Bonn or its environs. The mean of measurements in group II, at 3.7 Bq/kg body-weight, was lower than that of group I (5.8 Bq) and III (9.4 Bq). Mean radiation exposure, calculated from these data, was 1.7 mrem/a for group I, 1.1 mrem/a for group II, and 2.8 mrem/a for group III. A comparison with present Cs values in adults and measurements made at the end of the 1950's and beginning of 60's showed good agreement. There were no significant differences, as regards Cs activity, between newborns or infants who had been formula-fed or breast-fed. The measured radiation exposure of the three groups is about 1% of natural radiation exposure. Thus, present-day results indicate that there will be no damage to health outside the natural scatter.
The data on the assessment of the radiobiological situation and the results of clinical and epidemiological studies into the population health status, exposed to radiation because of the Chernobyl NPP accident are summarized. Appropriate regularities in soil contamination with 137Cs are ascertained. It has been shown that the disease incidence among the children's and adult population of the controlled areas is associated not only with improvement of the disease revealing but with the influence of the accident consequences.
Cesium 137 activity was measured after the Chernobyl incident in a whole-body radiation counter (4-pi-scintillation counter) in 85 premature and mature newborns (group 1), 174 infants and young children up to 2 11/12 years (group 2), and 48 children between 3 and 8 years (group 3) from Bonn (Germany) and surroundings. In 1987 the mean level of radioactivity in group 2, at 3.7 Bq/kg body weight corresponding to a mean radiation exposure of 11 muSv/y, was lower than that of group 1 (5.8 Bq/kg, 17 muSv/y) and 3 (9.4 Bq/kg, 28 muSv/y). Up to 1990 the values of all groups revealed a continuous decrease. The latest measurements showed mean values of 0.5 Bq/kg (1.5 muSv/y) in group 1, 0.6 Bq/kg (1.8 muSv/y) in group 2, and 0.8 Bq/kg (2.4 muSv/y) in group 3. A comparison with present cesium 137 values and determinations of the end of the 1950s and beginning of 1960s, both in adults, showed good agreement. The effective dose-equivalent rates amounted to less than 1% of that from natural radiation exposure. These levels should present no teratogenic risks to the population studied and, while there are theoretical mutagenic risks, the dose is so low that no increase in measurable mutagenic effects should be observed.