The qualitative and quantitative parameters of hemopoiesis and immunocompetent cells were studied in 365 children in the early "iodine" and long-term periods after the accident. In accordance with primary response, a group consisting of 28 subjects with so-called "radiation injury" was distinguished. The early period was marked by unusual qualitative and quantitative hematological changes which, however, did not lead to the development of the hematological syndrome characteristic of acute radiation injury. Certain deviations that corresponded to somatic pathology were detectable at the late periods after the accident.
Overall 806 children evacuated from the city of Pripyat were examined for the thyroid condition. The children who received a dose of more than 30 rad for the thyroid manifested primary response in the form of euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia, a high risk of the development in future of autoimmune diseases in the lack of hypothyrosis.
A total of 18 patients with acute leukemia from those exposed to radiation when they had liquidated the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station were examined. Sixteen of them had acute myeloblast cell leukemia, one had acute lymphatic leukemia, and another one had acute promyelocytic leukemia. A complex of hematological, immunocytological, and cytochemical findings, as well as leukocytic and erythrocytic genetically determined antigen typing were used for diagnosis. Signs of severe vegetovascular dystonia was found to be followed by acute leukemia in all the patients. A relationship was established between the therapy resistance and the HLA antigen homozygosity in combination with genetically-determined low reactivity. There were no significant differences between the parameters in question and those in patients with acute leukemia who had been studied in the preaccident period.
The paper considers the radiation doses of the thyroid gland in the inhabitants from the Ukrainian SSR areas (Kiev, Zhitomir, Chernigov, and Vinnitsa Regions), which have been obtained by instrumental studies of thyroidal radioactivity in May-June, 1986, and calculated by the most conservative single-dose administration model. A hygienic evaluation has been made of the findings, taking into account the age and residence. The cumulative irradiation doses of the thyroid have been estimated for children and adults. Possible late sequelae for the areas in question may account for 1060 and 300 thyroid carcinoma cases during the whole life for children and adults, respectively.
The immune system was examined in those who participated in the liquidation of accident sequelae at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station and the population exposed to ionizing radiation. Alteration in surface antigenic markers of basic regulatory subpopulations of immunocompetent cells and metabolic changes are caused by radiation and co-existent somatic diseases. Typing for HLA antigens and proteins with a genetically determined phenotype revealed characteristic features of their distribution for the general population.
The data on the assessment of the radiobiological situation and the results of clinical and epidemiological studies into the population health status, exposed to radiation because of the Chernobyl NPP accident are summarized. Appropriate regularities in soil contamination with 137Cs are ascertained. It has been shown that the disease incidence among the children's and adult population of the controlled areas is associated not only with improvement of the disease revealing but with the influence of the accident consequences.