The paper considers the radiation doses of the thyroid gland in the inhabitants from the Ukrainian SSR areas (Kiev, Zhitomir, Chernigov, and Vinnitsa Regions), which have been obtained by instrumental studies of thyroidal radioactivity in May-June, 1986, and calculated by the most conservative single-dose administration model. A hygienic evaluation has been made of the findings, taking into account the age and residence. The cumulative irradiation doses of the thyroid have been estimated for children and adults. Possible late sequelae for the areas in question may account for 1060 and 300 thyroid carcinoma cases during the whole life for children and adults, respectively.
The data on the assessment of the radiobiological situation and the results of clinical and epidemiological studies into the population health status, exposed to radiation because of the Chernobyl NPP accident are summarized. Appropriate regularities in soil contamination with 137Cs are ascertained. It has been shown that the disease incidence among the children's and adult population of the controlled areas is associated not only with improvement of the disease revealing but with the influence of the accident consequences.