For the purpose of genetic indication of low level of chronic radiation exposure the cytogenetic monitoring of some critical children groups living in two contaminated Ukrainian villages was carried out. In all the groups the mean frequency of aberrant cells and chromosome type aberrations (including dicentrics, centric rings, chromosome translocations as well as polyploid cells) significantly exceeded control level. During the repeated examination of children from Vistupovichi (in 13 months after the first one) the striking increase of cytogenetic effect was revealed. Dicentrics and rings were registered in 79% of persons with the individual rate 0.5-1.5 and mean group frequency 0.57 per 100 cells. The authors tried to evaluate the average cumulative doses of radiation for examined groups using G. Littlefield equation for dicentric outcome under the low dose rate Cs-137 source and taking into account the assumption about the reducing of 50% dicentrics per year. According to this rough calculation, the revealed cytogenetic effect can correspond to the mean total dose of 33 cSv for Vistupovichi children.
The complex investigation has been provided to control the genetically influenced processes after Chernobyl accident in some Ukrainian regions. Some dangerous trends in genetic populational status were revealed in the Ukrainian regions surrounding Chernobyl power plant allowing for the increasing number of congenital anomalies among the newborns and the spontaneous abortions as well as higher proportion in aberrations of chromosome type in human somatic and embryos cells, higher incidence of structural defects in embryonal bone system and higher, compared with control, proportion of children with intensive catabolism (R-protein homeostasis).
[The function of the hypophyseal-thyroid system in the children of Zhitomir Province living in areas polluted by the radionuclides resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station]
A study of 1167 children (age: 7-15 years) inhabiting districts contaminated with radionuclide due to Chernobyl atomic station accident indicates that children with thyroid hyperplasia revealed high requirement and intensity of the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones that results finally in relative hormonal deficit (subclinical hypothyroidism) and thyroid hyperplasia. This is a sequel of maximum functional tension of the thyroid with impending breakdown of adaptation and this should be considered as a pathological process requiring correction, i.e. presence of subclinical hypothyroidism in children with thyroid hyperplasia requires substitution therapy with thyroid hormones.
Since the Chernobyl accident health of the population at Kiev region, especially of children, has deteriorated considerably. The number of healthy persons has decreased. There is a strong tendency toward accumulation of chronic nonspecific diseases among the population. After the disaster thyroid pathology, chiefly early thyroid carcinoma, has been observed to rise. Determination of radiative load on the thyroid is one of the main problems of liquidation of medical sequels of the accident. Calculation of dose load should be carried out with taking into consideration not only contribution of 131I, but also dose received at the account of other iodine isotopes as well as of isotopes of other elements getting into the body by gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts. When analyzing thyroid morbidity one should take into account state of other organs and systems at the level of integral body.
[The immediate and late results of radiation effects on the occurrence of congenital defects in the locomotor apparatus based on screening data on newborns in the maternity hospitals of the city of Kiev]
On the basis of screening of 15939 newborns at the maternity homes of Kiev after the accident at the Chernobyl atomic station it was found that the number of children with congenital malformation of the locomotor apparatus in 1991-1992 increased by 28.7% as compared with the data of the first postaccident years (1986-1987). Congenital pathology of the hip joint (dysplasia in average 23.5 per 1000 births, hip dislocation 3.6:1000) and foot deformity (7.9:1000) had the highest incidence with a tendency to increase at the latest years.
The article is devoted to medical problems of Chernobyl accident, specifically to the question of thyroid carcinoma in children who received increased doses of radioactive iodine (mainly of 131I) in the first days of the disaster. Some relevant reports made at the 3rd Congress of the World Federation of Ukrainian Medical Societies are analyzed. The necessity of ultrasonic examination of the thyroid in children is pointed out. Special portable American-made apparatus is recommended for this purpose. Likelihood of leukaemia, lung cancer, gastrointestinal malign tumors as well as genetic disorders in descendants of irradiated people should also be remembered. Question of "clean" products and evacuation of the population residing in the 30-km zone must be solved.