Skip header and navigation

Refine By

44 records – page 1 of 5.

[Accumulation of radionuclides in food chains of the Yenisei River after the nuclear power plant shutdown at the mining-and-chemical enterprise].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261756
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2014 Jul-Aug;54(4):405-14
Publication Type
Article
Author
T A Zotina
E A Trofimova
A D Karpov
A Ia Bolsunovskii
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2014 Jul-Aug;54(4):405-14
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biota
Chemical Industry
Fishes - metabolism
Food chain
Industrial Waste - analysis
Mining
Muscle, Skeletal - radionuclide imaging
Nuclear Power Plants
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Rivers - chemistry
Seasons
Siberia
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
Accumulation of artificial and natural radionuclides in the chains of food webs leading to non-predatory and piscivorous fish of the Yenisei River was investigated during one year before and three years after the shutdown of a nuclear power plant at the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (2009-2012). The activity of artificial radionuclides in the samples of biota ofthe Yenisei River (aquatic moss, gammarids, dace, grayling, pike) was estimated. The concentration of radionuclides with induced activity (51Cr, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 65Zn, 141, 144Ce, 152, 154Eu, 239Np) decreased in the biomass of biota after the shutdown of the nuclear power plant; the concentration of 137Cs did not. Analysis of the accumulation factors (C(F)) allows us to expect the effective accumulation of 137Cs in the terminal level of the food web of the Yenisei River--pike (C(F) = 2.0-9.4), i.e. biomagnifications of radiocesium. Accumulation of artificial, radionuclides in non-predatory fish from gammarids was not effective (C(F)
PubMed ID
25775829 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Analysis of the late irradiation effects in the population of the north part of the East-Urals radioactive track]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature94539
Source
Gig Sanit. 2009 May-Jun;(3):49-51
Publication Type
Article
Author
Iarmoshenko I V
Kon'shina L G
Lezhnin V L
Zhukovskiii M V
Source
Gig Sanit. 2009 May-Jun;(3):49-51
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Power Plants
Radiation Injuries - epidemiology
Radiation, Ionizing
Radioactive Hazard Release
Retrospective Studies
Siberia - epidemiology
Survival Rate - trends
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Death records were used to analyze cancer mortality in the rural areas of the Kamensky District, Sverdlovsk Region, within the East-Urals radioactive track area. A study group showed a significant increase in cancer mortality as compared with a control group (65 of the 691 examinees; 90% confidence interval (CI) 18-144; the mean colonic radiation dose was 80 and 3 mGy in the study and control groups, respectively). The additional relative risk per colonic dose was 1.3 Gy(-1) (90% CI 0.36-2.9 Gy(-1)). The association of the additional relative risk with the age-related and time factors was studied and revealed.
PubMed ID
19645107 View in PubMed
Less detail

Applying and adapting the Swedish regulatory system for decommissioning to nuclear power reactors - The regulator's perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297662
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2019 Jan; 196:181-186
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2019
Author
Martin Amft
Mathias Leisvik
Simon Carroll
Author Affiliation
Department for Radioactive Materials, Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, 171 16 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: martin.amft@ssm.se.
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2019 Jan; 196:181-186
Date
Jan-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Environmental Policy
Environmental Restoration and Remediation
Nuclear Power Plants
Sweden
Abstract
Half of the original 13 Swedish nuclear power reactors will be shut down by 2020. The decommissioning of these reactors is a challenge for all parties involved, including the licensees, the waste management system, the financing system, and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). This paper presents an overview of the Swedish regulations for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It describes some of the experiences that SSM has gained from the application of these regulations. The focus of the present paper is on administrative aspects of decommissioning, such as SSM's guidelines, the definition of fundamental concepts in the regulatory framework, and a proposed revision of the licensing process according to the Environmental Act. These improvements will help to streamline the administration of the commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning projects that are anticipated to commence in Sweden in the near future.
PubMed ID
28318653 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association of radiation-induced genes with noncancer chronic diseases in Mayak workers occupationally exposed to prolonged radiation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263140
Source
Radiat Res. 2015 Mar;183(3):249-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Michael Abend
Tamara Azizova
Kerstin Müller
Harald Dörr
Sven Doucha-Senf
Helmut Kreppel
Galina Rusinova
Irina Glazkova
Natalia Vyazovskaya
Kristian Unger
Herbert Braselmann
Viktor Meineke
Source
Radiat Res. 2015 Mar;183(3):249-61
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chronic Disease - epidemiology
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Gamma Rays
Gene Expression Regulation - radiation effects
Humans
Male
MicroRNAs - biosynthesis
Nuclear Power Plants
Occupational Exposure
RNA, Messenger - biosynthesis
Radiation Injuries
Russia
Abstract
We examined the association of gene expression with noncancer chronic disease outcomes in Mayak nuclear weapons plant workers who were exposed to radiation due to their occupation. We conducted a cross-sectional study with selection based on radiation exposure status of Mayak plant workers living in Ozyorsk who were alive in 2011 and either exposed to: combined incorporated Plutonium-239 ((239)Pu) and external gamma-ray exposure (n = 82); external gamma-ray exposure alone (n = 18); or were unexposed (n = 50) of Ozyorsk residents who provided community-based professional support for plant personnel and who were alive in 2011. Peripheral blood was taken and RNA was isolated and then converted into cDNA and stored at -20°C. In a previous analysis we screened the whole genome for radiation-associated candidate genes, and validated 15 mRNAs and 15 microRNAs using qRT-PCR. In the current analysis we examined the association of these genes with 15 different chronic diseases on 92 samples (47 males, 45 females). We examined the radiation-to-gene and gene-to-disease associations in statistical models stratified by gender and separately for each disease and exposure. We modeled radiation exposure as gamma or (239)Pu on both the continuous and categorical scales. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and the concordance for genes that were significantly associated with radiation exposure and a specific disease outcome were identified. Altogether 12 mRNAs and 9 microRNAs appeared to be significantly associated with 6 diseases, including thyroid diseases (3 genes, OR: 1.2-5.1, concordance: 71-78%), atherosclerotic diseases (4 genes, OR: 2.5-10, concordance: 70-75%), kidney diseases (6 genes, OR: 1.3-8.6, concordance: 69-85%), cholelithiasis (3 genes, OR: 0.2-0.3, concordance: 74-75%), benign tumors [1 gene (AGAP4), OR: 3.7, concordance: 81%] and chronic radiation syndrome (4 genes, OR: 2.5-4.3, concordance: 70-99%). Further associations were found for systolic blood pressure (6 genes, OR: 3.7-10.6, concordance: 81-88%) and body mass index [1 gene (miR-484), OR: 3.7, concordance: 81%]. All associations were gender and exposure dependent. These findings suggest that gene expression changes observed after occupational prolonged radiation exposures may increase the risk for certain noncancer chronic diseases.
PubMed ID
25706777 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cancer incidence in the vicinity of Finnish nuclear power plants: an emphasis on childhood leukemia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146469
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Apr;21(4):587-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Sirpa Heinävaara
Salla Toikkanen
Kari Pasanen
Pia K Verkasalo
Päivi Kurttio
Anssi Auvinen
Author Affiliation
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Research and Environmental Surveillance, Helsinki, Finland. sirpa.heinavaara@stuk.fi
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Apr;21(4):587-95
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental Health - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Geography
Humans
Incidence
Leukemia - epidemiology
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Power Plants
Abstract
The objective of this paper was to study cancer incidence, especially leukemia in children ( or =30 km zone. Our results do not indicate an increase in childhood leukemia and other cancers in the vicinity of Finnish NPPs though the small sample size limits the strength of conclusions. The conclusion was the same for adults.
Notes
Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 Oct;8(10):925-3410548323
Cites: Nature. 1987 Oct 8-14;329(6139):499-5053657974
Cites: Lancet. 1989 Nov 11;2(8672):1145-72572858
Cites: Lancet. 1990 Sep 8;336(8715):577-821975376
Cites: JAMA. 1991 Mar 20;265(11):1403-81999880
Cites: Cancer Causes Control. 1993 Jan;4(1):51-88431531
Cites: BMJ. 1994 Aug 20-27;309(6953):501-58086902
Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 Sep;8(9):793-910498398
Cites: Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132(2):182-9018922823
Cites: Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132(2):202-1118927133
Cites: Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132(2):212-918940823
Cites: Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132(2):267-7218945723
Cites: J Radiol Prot. 2004 Dec;24(4):343-6815682904
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Nov 1;162(9):817-2216177146
Cites: Br J Cancer. 2006 May 8;94(9):1342-716622448
Cites: Eur J Cancer. 2006 Sep;42(13):1961-7116919764
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Jan;115(1):146-5017366835
Cites: Radiat Res. 2007 Jul;168(1):1-6417722996
Cites: Int J Cancer. 2008 Feb 15;122(4):721-618067131
Cites: Eur J Cancer. 2008 Jan;44(2):275-8418082395
Cites: Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132(2):166-7418922822
PubMed ID
20037792 View in PubMed
Less detail

A case of wound intake of plutonium isotopes and 241Am in a human: application and improvement of the NCRP wound model.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140857
Source
Health Phys. 2010 Oct;99(4):560-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Anatoly E Schadilov
Maxim V Belosokhov
Elena S Levina
Author Affiliation
Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorskoe Shosse 19, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, 456780 Russia. schadilov@subi.su
Source
Health Phys. 2010 Oct;99(4):560-7
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Americium - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Decontamination
Fingers - surgery
Humans
Injections, Intravenous
Lymph Nodes - drug effects - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Nuclear Power Plants
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Pentetic Acid - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Plutonium - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Radiation Injuries - metabolism - prevention & control - surgery
Radiation-Protective Agents - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Russia
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Wounds, Penetrating - metabolism - surgery
Abstract
Plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 238Pu, and 241Am) with a total activity of 269 kBq were accidentally deposited in a puncture wound of the right index finger of a nuclear worker at the Mayak Production Association. Tissues surrounding the wound site contaminated with radionuclides were excised 4.5 h after the injury. Residual contamination within the wound amounted to 0.05% of the initial contamination. The 10-d therapy with CaNa3-diethylene triamine pentaacetate acid (CaNa3-DTPA) was performed in parallel with in vivo measurements of the wound site and daily urine bioassays. The wound intake of radionuclides was consistent with two forms of radioactive materials detected within the wound site, i.e., soluble compounds and a large fragment, which was completely removed by excision. On day 9 after the injury, the clearance rate from the wound site was 1.8 times higher than the rate predicted by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) model for soluble compounds of plutonium and americium. The NCRP model parameters of transfer rates from the colloid and intermediate state (CIS) into soluble, and particles, aggregates and bound state (PABS) compartments were modified to eliminate any difference. As a result, a difference between the observed wound site radionuclide content and the value predicted by the modified wound model did not exceed 14% up to 9 days after the injury. For a longer period from 7 to 24 months, the value predicted by the modified model was consistent with results of the corresponding in vivo measurements. The treatment reduced the effective dose (50 years) from internal exposure by at least 480 times. The dose estimated (without accounting for a contribution of exposure dose to the regional lymph nodes draining the wound site) did not exceed 11 mSv.
PubMed ID
20838099 View in PubMed
Less detail

Catalog of Canadian fitness screening protocols for public safety occupations that qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123014
Source
J Strength Cond Res. 2013 Apr;27(4):1168-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
Robert J Gumieniak
Veronica K Jamnik
Norman Gledhill
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health, School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Strength Cond Res. 2013 Apr;27(4):1168-73
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Catalogs as Topic
Fires
Humans
Law Enforcement
Nuclear Power Plants
Occupations - standards
Personnel Selection - standards
Physical Fitness
Prisons
Abstract
The purpose of this paper was to provide succinct descriptions of prominent job-specific physical fitness protocols (JSPFPs) that were constructed to satisfy the legal obligations to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement for physically demanding public safety occupations. The intent of a JSPFP is to determine whether an applicant or incumbent possesses the necessary physical capabilities to safely and efficiently perform the critical on-the-job tasks encountered in a physically demanding occupation. The JSPFP information summarized in this report is accessible in full detail in the public domain. Therefore, prospective JSPFP participants and fitness professionals who require the information to train participants can fully inform themselves about the specific protocol requirements and associated fitness training implications.
PubMed ID
22744418 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cerebrovascular diseases in nuclear workers first employed at the Mayak PA in 1948-1972.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131815
Source
Radiat Environ Biophys. 2011 Nov;50(4):539-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2011
Author
Tamara V Azizova
Colin R Muirhead
Maria B Moseeva
Evgenia S Grigoryeva
Margarita V Sumina
Jacqueline O'Hagan
Wei Zhang
Richard J G E Haylock
Nezahat Hunter
Author Affiliation
Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russian Federation. clinic@subi.su
Source
Radiat Environ Biophys. 2011 Nov;50(4):539-52
Date
Nov-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alpha Particles - adverse effects
Cerebrovascular Disorders - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Gamma Rays - adverse effects
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Power Plants
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Radiation Dosage
Risk
Russia - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Incidence and mortality from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) (430-438 ICD-9 codes) have been studied in a cohort of 18,763 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) in 1948-1972 and followed up to the end of 2005. Some of the workers were exposed to external gamma-rays only while others were exposed to a mixture of external gamma-rays and internal alpha-particle radiation due to incorporated (239)Pu. After adjusting for non-radiation factors, there were significantly increasing trends in CVD incidence with total absorbed dose from external gamma-rays and total absorbed dose to liver from internal alpha radiation. The CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with total absorbed external gamma-ray doses greater than 0.20 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses; the data were consistent with a linear trend in risk with external dose. The CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with total absorbed internal alpha-radiation doses to liver from incorporated (239)Pu greater than 0.025 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses. There was no statistically significant trend in CVD mortality risk with either external gamma-ray dose or internal alpha-radiation dose to liver. The risk estimates obtained are generally compatible with those from other large occupational studies, although the incidence data point to higher risk estimates compared to those from the Japanese A-bomb survivors. Further studies of the unique cohort of Mayak workers chronically exposed to external and internal radiation will allow improving the reliability and validating the radiation safety standards for occupational and public exposure.
PubMed ID
21874558 View in PubMed
Less detail

Characteristics of neurological status and the electroencephalogram in nuclear power station control operators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144693
Source
Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2010 May;40(4):457-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
I V Laskova
E E Tret'yakova
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Kursk State Medical University, Russian Ministry of Health, Kursk, Russia.
Source
Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2010 May;40(4):457-60
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases - diagnosis - etiology - physiopathology
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Electroencephalography - methods - radiation effects
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Power Plants
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - etiology - physiopathology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Prognosis
Retrospective Studies
Russia
Abstract
A total of 105 control operators at the Kursk nuclear power station were studied: 45 after working shifts (study group) and 60 on rest days (reference group). These investigations showed that operators' work shifts had significant influences on the functional state of the nervous system, promoting the appearance or exacerbation of autonomic dysfunction. In some cases, work shifts increased arterial blood pressure to risk levels for the development of cerebrovascular disease. The effects of nuclear power station operators' work shifts on brain bioelectrical activity included a decrease in the proportion of unaltered EEG traces, along with increases in the spectral power densities of the alpha rhythm in the parietal leads and the theta rhythm in the posterior temporal and parietal leads. The origin of these changes may be related to both fatigue and the effects of adverse industrial factors. It is suggested that clinical observation of power station operators should be supplemented by assessments of autonomic dysfunction and measurement of the spectral power densities of the alpha and theta rhythms in the parietal and posterior temporal leads.
PubMed ID
20333501 View in PubMed
Less detail

Chernobyl: an unbelievable failure to help.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92347
Source
Int J Health Serv. 2008;38(3):543-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Bertell Rosalie
Author Affiliation
International Physicians for Humanitarian Medicine, Geneva. rosaliebertell@greynun.org
Source
Int J Health Serv. 2008;38(3):543-60
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Bias (epidemiology)
Byelarus
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health education
Humans
International Cooperation
Leukemia, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Male
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Power Plants - standards
Radiation Injuries - epidemiology
Radiation Protection - standards
Relief Work
Research Design - standards
Russia
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology
Ukraine
World Health Organization
Young Adult
Abstract
The disaster at the Chernobyl power reactor near Kiev, which began on April 26, 1986, was one of the world's worst industrial accidents. Yet the global community, usually most generous in its aid to a stricken community, has been slow to understand the scope of the disaster and reach out to the most devastated people of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. This article probes the causes of this confusion of perception and failure of response; clearly the problem is one of communication. Has the International Atomic Energy Agency betrayed the victims of the Chernobyl disaster because of its plans to promote the "peaceful atom" nuclear program in the developing world? Has the World Health Organization failed to provide clear, reliable information on the health effects resulting from the disaster? Are other historical problems or actors interfering with reasonable handling of the late effects of a nuclear disaster? Most importantly, what can be done to remedy this situation, to assist those most hurt by the late effects of Chernobyl and prevent such injustice in future? With the current promotion of nuclear energy as a "solution" to global climate change, we need to take a sober second look at the nuclear energy experiment and management of its hazards.
PubMed ID
18724581 View in PubMed
Less detail

44 records – page 1 of 5.