In a group of intact families, we examined the rates and parameters of verbal, physical, and sexual abuse in 35 women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), 34 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), and 33 women without a clinical history (NC); their experience of multiple abuse and its correlation with their SCL-90-R scores; and their reports of abuse of their siblings. Corroboration of abuse was obtained from some parents in each group. Women with BPD suffered more intrafamilial verbal and physical abuse. Whereas AN and NC women experienced relatively rare single events of extrafamilial sexual abuse at an older age, those with BPD suffered repeated intrafamilial sexual abuse at a younger age and also suffered more multiple abuse. All multiply abused women had more psychopathology. Siblings were reported abused in the same proportions as subjects; many parents of BPDs corroborated their daughters' reports of all three forms of abuse.
A longitudinal research project began in 1993 of Norwegian, Swedish and American mothers' perception of her family's dynamics and adaptation during childbearing and childrearing. Results indicated that Swedish mothers adapted better than other mothers. In 2003, a mixed design study was conducted with original Swedish mothers that aimed to describe the experience of motherhood, the meaning mothers attached to events in their lives that made adaptation necessary, and ways in which they achieved adaptation. Fourteen mothers completed quantitative instruments and 13 of those mothers were interviewed. Audiotaped interviews were transcribed and analysed for themes using a protocol based on a model of family resiliency. Quantitative findings revealed statistically significant findings in areas of children, mother's work outside the home and families in which a major illness had occurred. Qualitative findings revealed that protective factors far outweighed vulnerability and risk factors. Mothers' satisfaction with life manifested itself in love of home, contentment with employment, fulfillment from an active and healthy life and support from a society that provides a wide range of social benefits for the family. Vulnerability occurred primarily when mothers were tired, lacked personal time or someone in the family was experiencing a serious illness. Results of this study enhance the scholarly scientific knowledge about the uniqueness of Swedish mothers, and increased understanding of family dynamics and adaptation. Many of the findings relate in some way to overall social benefits and supports available for families.
In this Alaska Native study, cultural "insiders" analyzed problems associated with increased alcohol availability, factors which have reduced alcohol-related problems, and ideas for improving treatment in an Inuit community. Participants described frequent binging, blackouts, family violence, suicide, loss of child custody, and feelings of intergenerational grief. Helpful existing treatment approaches include alcohol ordinances, inpatient treatment programs, twelve-step groups, and religious involvement. Participants urged the development of family treatment approaches which integrate Inuit customs and values.
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to evaluate the actual health conditions of children subject to family reunification at the time of their introductory examination at their Danish school and to estimate whether these children represent any health risk to others at the school. The focus was the children's somatic disease pattern and not the behavioural and psychopathological aspects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective analysis was carried out of children subject to family reunification who started school in Copenhagen in the school year, 1999/2000. This analysis is based on a family interview with the aid of a translator and an objective medical examination. RESULTS: In the school year 1999/2000, 148 children were examined. They were aged between 5 and 18 years. The children had emigrated from 25 different countries. Fifty-five children live with only one biological parent. Eighteen point five per cent of the children have earlier had one or more diseases. Most of them (91.2%) were assessed as having good general health and sensomotoric development according to their age. Among the 148 children examined, 48% have had one or more diagnoses made. DISCUSSION: On the basis of the experience obtained in this study, more resources must be allocated for better examination. CONCLUSION: In the light of the pattern of disease, it cannot be concluded that the children constitute a risk of infection for other children and adults at school. The results of this study call attention to a need for prospective studies on the health conditions of the children subject to family reunification on their arrival in Denmark.
Family life in developed economies has undergone a fundamental change--shifting from single-breadwinner households (typical of the post war decades) to families where both parents are employed. Equally dramatic has been the emergence of around-the-clock economies, altering the way work is organised, especially working time. Many more children now live in households where one or both parents work non-standard hours (evenings, nights or on weekends). Are there any implications for children's well-being when parents work non-standard schedules? There has been virtually no investigation of how children are faring in these around-the-clock households, despite evidence that non-standard work times affect family functioning and are stressful for parents. Using data from a representative sample of 4433 dual-earner Canadian families and their 2--11-year-old children (N children=6361), we compared families where both parents worked standard hours, with families where one or both worked non-standard times (evenings, nights or weekends). In nearly three-quarters of the families one or both parents regularly worked non-standard times. We found associations between children's well-being and parent work schedules, with higher odds ratios for child difficulties when parents worked non-standard times. These associations persisted after adjusting for several confounding factors including socio-economic status, parent part-time or full-time work, and childcare use, and were evident whether mothers, fathers or both parents worked non-standard times. The findings raise questions about the implications for children of the 24-h economy.
Sixty children with functional motor limitations (age range from 15 months to 7 years 3 months) and their parents participated in the study. The objective was to explore the relationship of the severity of their restrictions on family strengths. Functional motor abilities of the children were assessed using Autti-Ramo's Scale. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Swedish standardized version of the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development. Family strengths were indexed using the Family Functioning Style Scale. The social-economical status, children's age and caretakers' age were taken into account. Overall, the results indicated that family strengths were rather strong. Only families rearing a child with severe participation limitations (functional motor limitations and cognitive difficulties) showed less strengths concerning family identity and internal coping relative to families with a child with milder participation limitations.
In clinical work using the Illness Beliefs Model, therapeutic leverage is focused on challenging constraining beliefs of family members that are contributing to their suffering. This challenge occurs in many ways, including offering alternative facilitating beliefs that may lead to healing rather than suffering. This article describes an exemplar of clinical work with a family who sought services in the Family Nursing Unit at the University of Calgary, with the presenting concern of unresolved grief. This analysis describes the therapeutic conversation that occurred between the family and a team of nurse clinicians, where the young woman's beliefs about grief and mothering were distinguished as beliefs that were contributing to her emotional pain and her belief in her mothering capabilities. The nursing team offered alternative beliefs of which the family rapidly embraced and, subsequently, experienced diminishment of the suffering previously experienced.
Ten boys and 15 girls below the age of 16, were referred to the National Hospital in Norway for evaluation for heart or lung transplantation 1990-97. 24 of the children and their families went through a thorough psychosocial assessment in order to assess the supportive measures the children and their families might need for coping with stress during the evaluation and the follow-up period. The patients were divided into three diagnostic groups: Two had cystic fibrosis and one an obstructive lung disease, heart-lung group, eight had congenital heart disease and 13 cardiomyopathy. 15 children were accepted for transplantation and placed on the waiting list. The others were rejected for medical reasons. Seven children (29%) filled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis (six anxiety disorders and one depression). Five others had considerable anxiety symptoms. The cardiomyopathy group had fewer problems than the heart-lung and congenital heart disease groups. The study shows that families with children suffering from life-threatening disease live with a great deal of stress and are in need of help and support. Many families are either not aware of their rights or too exhausted to seek help.
Using theoretical sampling, we extended a previous grounded theory study of women's caring through interviews with 16 women currently giving care to parents who had abused them as children to more fully understand daughters' obligation to care in the context of past abuse. Past relationship was characterized by emotional distance, "never being good enough," degradation, control, and unpredictability. Obligation to care was grounded not only in duty to others but also in duty to self. Caregiving was seen as an opportunity for validation and reconciliation. These findings advance knowledge by illuminating how survivors of child maltreatment become caregivers for their abusers.